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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K  
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
 OR  
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 Commission file number: 1-14443
GARTNER, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)  
Delaware04-3099750
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
P.O. Box 10212
56 Top Gallant Road
Stamford,
Connecticut06902-7700
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (203) 316-1111
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange
on which registered
Common Stock, $0.0005 par value per shareITNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No
As of June 30, 2021, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $19.7 billion, based on the closing price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
As of February 17, 2022, there were 82,287,402 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on June 2, 2022 (the 2022 Proxy Statement) is incorporated by reference into Part III to the extent described therein.












































GARTNER, INC.
2021 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  
   
  
   
  
   
  

PART I




ITEM 1. BUSINESS.

GENERAL

Gartner, Inc. (NYSE: IT) delivers actionable, objective insight to executives and their teams. Our expert guidance and tools enable faster, smarter decisions and stronger performance on an organization’s mission critical priorities.

We are a trusted advisor and an objective resource for more than 15,000 enterprises in approximately 100 countries and territories— across all major functions, in every industry and enterprise size.

Gartner delivers its products and services globally through three business segments – Research, Conferences and Consulting, as described below.

Research equips executives and their teams from every function and across all industries with actionable, objective insight, guidance and tools. Our experienced experts deliver all this value informed by a combination of practitioner-sourced and data-driven research to help our clients address their mission critical priorities.

Conferences provides executives and teams across an organization the opportunity to learn, share and network. From our Gartner Symposium/Xpo series, to industry-leading conferences focused on specific business roles and topics, to peer-driven sessions, our offerings enable attendees to experience the best of Gartner insight and guidance.

Consulting serves senior executives leading technology-driven strategic initiatives leveraging the power of Gartner’s actionable, objective insight. Through custom analysis and on-the-ground support we enable optimized technology investments and stronger performance on our clients’ mission critical priorities.

The fiscal year of Gartner is the twelve-month period from January 1 through December 31. All references to 2021, 2020 and 2019 herein refer to the fiscal year unless otherwise indicated. When used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the terms “Gartner,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to Gartner, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

MARKET OVERVIEW
Enterprise leaders face enormous pressure to stay ahead and grow profitably amidst constant changes. Whether it is a digital transformation, a global health crisis, large-scale regulatory changes, or other unique challenges, business leaders today are facing significant disruptive changes. We believe that enterprises cannot be operationally effective unless they incorporate the right strategy, management and technology decisions into every part of their business. This requirement affects all business levels, functions and roles. Executives and their teams turn to Gartner for decision-making and execution guidance to achieve their mission critical priorities.

OUR SOLUTION
We believe our combination of expert-led, practitioner-sourced and data-driven research steers clients toward the right decisions and actions on the issues that matter most. Organizations are overrun with data and information. Gartner helps eliminate this information chaos and provides clarity with actionable, objective insight. We employ a diversified business model that utilizes and leverages the breadth and depth of our differentiated intellectual capital. The foundation of our business model is our ability to create and distribute our proprietary research content as broadly as possible via published reports, interactive tools, facilitated peer networking, briefings and direct communications with executives and their teams; our conferences, including the Gartner Symposium/Xpo series; and consulting and advisory services.

PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

Our diversified business model provides multiple entry points and sources of value for our clients that lead to increased client spending on our research and advisory services, conferences and consulting services. A critical part of our long-term strategy is to increase business volume and penetration with our most valuable clients, identifying relationships with the greatest sales potential and expanding those relationships by offering strategically relevant research and insight. We also seek to extend the Gartner brand name to develop new client relationships, augment our sales capacity and expand into new markets around the world. These initiatives have created additional revenue streams through more effective packaging, campaigning and cross-selling of our products and services. In addition, we seek to increase our revenue and operating cash flow through more effective pricing of our products and services.

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Our principal products and services are delivered through our three business segments, as described below.

RESEARCH. Gartner delivers independent, objective advice to leaders across an enterprise through subscription services that include on-demand access to published research content, data and benchmarks, and direct access to a network of approximately 2,200 research experts located around the globe. Gartner research is the fundamental building block for all Gartner products and services. We combine our proprietary research methodologies with extensive industry and academic relationships to create Gartner products and services that address each role across an enterprise. Within the Research segment, Global Technology Sales (“GTS”) sells products and services to users and providers of technology, while Global Business Sales (“GBS”) sells products and services to all other functional leaders, such as human resources, supply chain, marketing, and finance.

Our research agenda is defined by clients’ needs, focusing on the critical issues, opportunities and challenges they face every day. We are in steady contact with more than 15,000 distinct client enterprises worldwide. We publish tens of thousands of pages of original research annually, and our research experts had more than 495,000 direct client interactions in 2021. Our size and scale enable us to commit vast resources toward broader and deeper research coverage and to deliver insight to our clients based on what they need and where they are. The ongoing interaction of our research experts with our clients enables us to identify the most pertinent topics to them and develop relevant product and service enhancements to meet the evolving needs of users of our research. Our proprietary research content, presented in the form of reports, briefings, updates and related tools, is delivered directly to the client’s computer or mobile device via our website and/or product-specific portals.

Clients normally sign subscription contracts that provide access to our research content and advisory services for individual users over a defined period. We typically have a minimum contract period of twelve months for our research and advisory subscription contracts and, at December 31, 2021, a significant portion of our contracts were multi-year.

CONFERENCES. Gartner conferences are designed for IT and business executives as well as decision makers looking to adapt and evolve their organizations through disruption and uncertainty, navigate risks and prioritize investments. Attendees experience sessions led by Gartner research experts, and the sessions include cutting-edge technology solutions, peer exchange workshops, one-on-one analyst and advisor meetings, consulting diagnostic workshops, keynotes and more. Our conferences also provide attendees with an opportunity to interact with business executives from the world’s leading companies. In addition to role-specific summits and workshop-style seminars, Gartner hosts the Gartner Symposium/Xpo series, including its unique, flagship IT Symposium/Xpo®, which is usually held at nine locations worldwide annually. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, Gartner attracted more than 85,000 business and technology professionals to its 70+ destination conferences worldwide in 2019. We also hosted 700+ live meetings each year for peer collaboration and networking, and 240+ exclusive C-level meetings through the Evanta brand. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we pivoted to producing virtual conferences with a focus on maximizing the value we deliver for our clients. During 2021, Gartner successfully held 39 virtual conferences with more than 57,000 attendees, including eight Symposiums/Xpos. In addition, during 2021 we hosted 450+ virtual peer networking meetings, and through the Evanta brand we hosted 550+ exclusive C-level virtual meetings.

CONSULTING. Through its experienced consultants, Gartner Consulting serves chief information officers and other senior executives who are driving technology-related strategic initiatives to optimize technology investments and drive business impact. Gartner Consulting combines the power of Gartner’s market-leading research with custom analysis and on-the-ground support to help clients to turn insight and advice into action and impact.

Consulting solutions capitalize on Gartner assets that are invaluable to information technology (“IT”) decision-making, including: (1) our extensive research, which ensures that our consulting analyses and advice are based on a deep understanding of the IT environment and the business of IT; (2) our market independence, which keeps our consultants focused on our clients’ success; and (3) our market-leading benchmarking capabilities, which provide relevant comparisons and best practices to assess and improve performance. Additionally, we provide actionable solutions for a range of IT-related priorities, including IT cost optimization, digital transformation and IT sourcing optimization.

COMPETITION

We believe that the principal factors that differentiate us from our competitors are as follows:

Superior research content - We believe that we create the broadest, highest-quality and most relevant research coverage across all major functional roles in an enterprise. Our independent operating model and research analysis generates
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unbiased insight that we believe is timely, thought-provoking and comprehensive, and that is known for its high quality, independence and objectivity.

Our leading brand name - We have provided critical, trusted insight under the Gartner name for more than 40 years.

Our global footprint and established customer base - We have a global presence with clients in approximately 100 countries and territories on six continents. A substantial portion of our revenue is derived from sales outside of the United States.

Insight that creates connections - Our global community of experts, analysts and peers help provide the deep relationships that help clients stay ahead of the curve.

Experienced management team - Our management team is comprised of research veterans and experienced industry executives with long tenure at Gartner.

Substantial operating leverage in our business model - We can distribute our intellectual property and expertise across multiple platforms, including research and advisory subscription and membership programs, conferences and consulting engagements, to derive incremental revenue and profitability.

Vast network of research experts and consultants - As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately 2,200 research experts and 760 experienced consultants located around the world. Our research experts are located in more than 30 countries and territories, enabling us to cover vast aspects of business and technology on a global basis.

Notwithstanding these differentiating factors, we face competition from a significant number of independent providers of information products and services. We compete indirectly with consulting firms and other data and information providers, including electronic and print media companies. These indirect competitors could choose to compete directly with us in the future. In addition, we face competition from free sources of information that are available to our clients through the internet. Limited barriers to entry exist in the markets in which we do business. As a result, new competitors may emerge and existing competitors may start to provide additional or complementary services. While we believe the breadth and depth of our research positions us well versus our competition, increased competition could result in loss of market share, diminished value in our products and services, reduced pricing, and increased sales and marketing expenditures.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

Our success has resulted in part from proprietary methodologies, software, reusable knowledge capital and other intellectual property rights. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret, confidentiality, non-compete and other contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property rights. We have policies related to confidentiality, ownership, and the use and protection of Gartner’s intellectual property. We also enter into agreements with our employees and third parties as appropriate that protect our intellectual property, and we enforce these agreements if necessary. We recognize the value of our intellectual property in the marketplace and vigorously identify, create and protect it. Additionally, we actively monitor and enforce contract compliance by our end users.

HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT

We believe our people are our most valuable asset, enabling our long track record of global growth. From attracting diverse talent through our recruitment process to cultivating that talent with learning and development opportunities and rewards for strong performers to supporting overall wellness with meaningful benefits and engagement, we strive to put our people first. At December 31, 2021, we had approximately 16,600 employees globally, and the overwhelming majority of our employees were full time.

Gartner is committed to providing equal employment opportunities to all applicants and employees without regard to any legally protected status. This commitment is formalized in our global and U.S. equal employment opportunity policies. We continually renew this commitment by seeking to optimize our recruitment and professional development processes, create networking and educational opportunities, celebrate heritage and history, encourage community service and outreach, and create safe spaces for all employees. Our human capital management strategies are developed by executive management and overseen by the Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion

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We foster an environment of professional development to help our employees reach their full potential through a culture of continuous improvement. This includes embracing diversity and actively removing barriers to support inclusion, engagement and growth at Gartner. Our Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (“DEI”) Executive Council, composed of our CEO, Chief Human Resources Officer, CFO, General Counsel, head of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion, and other selected leaders, drives diversity, equity and inclusion as an imperative at all levels of the organization. In addition, the DEI Center of Excellence, which reports directly to our Chief Human Resources Officer, codifies our strategy and establishes goals against key metrics to drive greater transparency and accountability. Our teams of employees are composed of individuals from different geographies, cultures, religions, ethnicities, races, genders, sexual orientations, abilities and generations working together to solve problems. As of December 31, 2021, approximately 46% of our employees worldwide and 36% of our Board of Directors identified as female. In addition, 18% of our Board of Directors and approximately 22% of employees in the U.S. identified as racially or ethnically diverse. On a worldwide basis, our employees were represented by more than 85 self-identified nationalities working in 38 different countries and territories.

We focus on the role of unconscious bias and endeavor to build tools that help make various business processes more inclusive and accommodate a more diverse perspective. We emphasize the importance of inclusion to leaders and managers and the value of fostering a sense of belonging within their teams. We also continue to invest in learning opportunities to develop DEI at Gartner. For example, our popular Embracing Diversity & Being Inclusive module has enrolled more than 5,600 associates since its inception.

The Company supports a number of employee-driven Employee Resource Groups (“ERGs”) that bring employees together to foster a diverse, inclusive and supportive workplace. Gartner currently has six formal ERGs supporting underrepresented racial, ethnic and multicultural backgrounds, women, the LGBTQ+ community, veterans and employees with disabilities. Participation in ERGs is voluntary and open to all employees. In 2021, over 4,300 Gartner associates were members of at least one ERG.

Health, Safety and Compensation

We seek to invest in meaningful, innovative and inclusive compensation and benefit programs that support physical, financial and emotional well-being of our employees. In addition to salaries, these programs (which vary by country/region) include annual bonuses, stock awards, an employee stock purchase plan, 401(k) matching, healthcare and insurance benefits, tax savings programs, such as health and dependent care flexible spending accounts, health savings account and pretax commuter benefits, generous paid time off, paid parental leave, life and disability insurance, business travel accident insurance, charity matching, employee assistance programs, tuition assistance and on-site services, such as health centers and fitness centers, among others. We believe that our equity grants facilitate retention as well as encourage performance of key personnel.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented significant changes to protect the health and safety of our employees, clients and the communities in which we operate. This included the temporary closure of our offices in the United States, United Kingdom, India, and several other impacted locations around the world, as well as the cancellation of certain in-person conferences. We have now reopened a majority of our offices (including our corporate headquarters) and are planning to reopen the remaining offices in early 2022, with safety guidelines to protect employee health. In 2021, we announced a hybrid virtual-first working arrangement, which provides additional flexibility to employees, enabling most of them to continue working remotely a substantial portion of the time. We also provide a number of free mental and behavioral health resources, including access to the Employee Assistance Program for employees and their dependents.

Talent Development, Retention and Training

Gartner aims to foster a culture of lifelong learning, getting feedback and evolving. In addition to helping employees unlock their full potential through mechanisms like continuous feedback and performance appraisals, we have dedicated programs designed to develop effective leaders. We also offer rotational programs and an online learning experience platform for employees called GartnerYou. In 2021, GartnerYou offered close to 45,000 learning resources, with more than 321,000 completions globally. Since our Sales and Research & Advisory teams make up of approximately 50% of total employees worldwide, we also have formal, dedicated programs to help train and onboard new hires as well as more experienced managers and leaders within Sales and Research & Advisory. In 2021, Gartner transformed how we onboard new sales hires so they more quickly develop the core competencies tied to sales success. Rooted in learning and development best practices, the reimagined program operates in a scalable model that provides new sales hires in their first year with access to as many as 500 well-paced, just-in-time learning assets. More than 1,200 sales associates went through this program in 2021. Through these programs, we believe our teams develop role-specific knowledge and skills, increase productivity and improve performance.

We also strive to develop an inclusive and engaging environment that makes Gartner a vibrant, exciting place to work. We believe the greatest catalyst to engagement comes from leadership — particularly their efforts to set direction, allocate
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resources, and build individual and organizational capability. We embed our associate survey efforts within our business units so that the insight we glean can help leaders understand the opportunities for effecting organizational growth. Business-unit-specific survey results are used for a number of leader-specific interventions, from individualized coaching to team-based skill-building to business-unit-wide initiatives targeting key areas of engagement. Although, like many companies, we experienced an uptick in associate turnover in 2021, the average employee tenure decreased only slightly from 5.2 years in 2020 to 5.1 years in 2021. Moreover, average employee tenure increased year over year for our sales team.

Our Communities

Our associates have a long history of individual and team volunteering. In addition to providing the flexibility for associates to spend time volunteering, we facilitate and support on- and off-site volunteer projects for teams, and encourage non-profit board
service, skills-based volunteerism and in-house drives. In 2021, Gartner associates logged approximately 18,800 hours supporting over 420 nonprofit organizations around the world.

We encourage you to review the “Our Associates” section of our Corporate Responsibility Report located on our website at gartner.com, under the “Corporate Responsibilities” link in the “About” tab for more detailed information regarding our Human Capital programs and initiatives. Nothing on our website, including our Corporate Responsibility Report or sections thereof, shall be deemed incorporated by reference into this Annual Report, or any other filing we make with the SEC.

GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS

Our U.S. government contracts are subject to the approval of appropriations by the U.S. Congress to fund the agencies contracting for our products and services. Additionally, our contracts at the state and local levels, as well as foreign government contracts, are subject to various governmental authorizations and funding approvals and mechanisms. Certain of these contracts may be terminated at any time by the government entity without cause or penalty.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

Our internet address is gartner.com and the Investor Relations section of our website is at investor.gartner.com. We make available free of charge, on or through the Investor Relations section of our website, printable copies of our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Unless expressly noted, the information on our website or any other website is not incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this Form 10-K or any other filing we make with the SEC.

Also available at investor.gartner.com, under the “Governance” link, are printable and current copies of our: (i) CEO and CFO Code of Ethics, which applies to our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Controller and other financial managers; (ii) Global Code of Conduct, which applies to all Gartner officers, directors and employees, wherever located; (iii) Principles and Practices of the Board of Directors of Gartner, Inc., the corporate governance principles that have been adopted by our Board; and (iv) charters for each of the Board’s standing committees: Audit, Compensation and Governance/Nominating. We will disclose any waiver we grant to an executive officer or director under our Code of Ethics, or certain amendments to the Code of Ethics, on our website at investor.gartner.com, under the “Governance” link.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS.

We operate in a highly competitive and rapidly changing environment that involves numerous risks and uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. In addition, we and our clients are affected by global economic conditions and trends. The following sections address significant factors, events and uncertainties that make an investment in our securities risky. We urge you to consider carefully the factors described below and the risks that they present for our operations, as well as the risks addressed in other reports and materials that we file with the SEC and the other information, included or incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K. When the factors, events and contingencies described below or elsewhere in this Form 10-K materialize, there could be a material adverse impact on our business, prospects, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows, and therefore have a potential negative effect on the trading price of our common stock. Additional risks not currently known to us or that we now deem immaterial may also harm us and negatively affect your investment. In addition to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting global disruptions on our business and operations discussed in Item 7 of this Form 10-K and in the risk factors below, additional or unforeseen effects from the COVID-19 pandemic and the global economic climate may give rise to or amplify many of these risks discussed below. Risks in this section are grouped in the
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following categories: (1) risks related to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic; (2) strategic and operational risks; (3) macroeconomic and industry risks; (4) legal and regulatory risks; and (5) risks related to our Common Stock. Many risks affect more than one category, and the risks are not in order of significance or probability of occurrence because they have been grouped by categories.

Risks Related to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a material adverse impact on our operations and financial performance, specifically our Conferences segment, as well as on the operations and financial performance of many of our customers, and the duration and extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to affect our operations, financial performance, results of operations, achievement of strategic objectives, and/or stock price remains uncertain. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widespread health crisis that has adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, our operations, financial performance and demand for our products and services. It has also adversely affected the operations and financial performance of many of our clients. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in, and may continue to result in, a substantial curtailment of business activities (including the decrease in demand for a broad variety of products and services both regionally and globally), weakened economic conditions, significant economic uncertainty and volatility in the financial markets. Finally, new variants of COVID-19 continue to emerge, including the Delta variant and more recently, the Omicron variant, which has caused and may continue to cause significant uncertainty. The future impact of the Delta and Omicron variants, or other variants that may emerge, cannot be predicted at this time, and may be affected by numerous factors, including vaccination rates and availability in the U.S. and globally, the effectiveness of current vaccines against the variants and responses by various governments, such as lockdowns and other restrictive measures.

The COVID-19 pandemic has subjected our operations and financial performance to a number of risks that may have (or may continue to have) a material adverse impact on our operations and financial condition, including, but not limited to those discussed below:

We have had to temporarily close Gartner offices (including our corporate headquarters) in the United States, United Kingdom, India, and several other impacted locations around the world and implemented significant travel restrictions. Though many of our employees continue to work remotely, these changes impact the normal operation of our business. Although we have reopened most offices and have plans to reopen substantially all remaining offices in early 2022, health and safety permitting, reopening is subject to many factors outside of our control. As a result, we cannot predict for certain when or how we will begin to lift the actions put in place as part of our business continuity plans, including work from home protocols and travel restrictions.

We cancelled in-person conferences scheduled for 2020 beginning in late February/early March 2020 with the remainder being cancelled after the World Health Organization’s declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic later in March 2020. We began holding virtual conferences during the second half of 2020. We held 39 virtual conferences during 2021 and expect to continue to deliver conferences virtually during 2022. These virtual conferences have resulted in significantly less revenue and gross contribution than in-person conferences, but we believe they aid in client retention and engagement. Future in-person conferences will be held only if we determine the relevant impacts of COVID-19 have sufficiently receded in the jurisdictions where our conferences are to be held. Additionally, our Conferences business strategy may evolve over time. For additional information about how COVID-19 affects our Conferences business, see the Risk Factor titled “The profitability and success of our conferences and other meetings are subject to external factors beyond our control.

Our management is focused on mitigating the effects of COVID-19 on our business, which has required and will continue to require, a substantial investment of time and may delay other value-added services.

Additionally, we face challenges from evolving factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic that are not within our control, remain uncertain and to which we may not effectively respond. For example, our operations span numerous locations around the world, and many local governments and countries have imposed or may impose various restrictions on our employees, partners and customers’ physical movement to limit the spread of COVID-19. These restrictions are constantly changing, and we cannot predict how long and to what extent they will continue. We also face increased operational hurdles as we make efforts to promote employee health and safety, including limiting travel, limiting access to offices, and implementing a hybrid virtual-first work policy, meaning that most of our employees will have the option to work remotely at least some of the time, for the foreseeable future. In addition, complying with various customer or government vaccine, masking and/or testing requirements may result in increased competition for skilled talent, adversely impact our ability to deliver services to our customers and adversely impact our operational results or financial performance.
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Moreover, COVID-19 may adversely impact our subscription-based business model (which accounts for a significant portion of our revenue) by causing clients to decrease new and renewals of subscription-based services and to request to cancel or renegotiate current subscription-based services. The effect of COVID-19 on our subscription-based model may not be fully reflected in our results of operations until future periods.

Further, the duration and extent of the impact from the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on our operations and financial performance depend on future developments that cannot currently be accurately predicted, such as:

the severity and transmission rate of the virus and variants;
the extent and effectiveness of containment actions;
the timing of the development and distribution of effective vaccines globally and/or treatments and their acceptance by the general public;
the health and well-being of our workforce;
the extent and duration of the effect on client spending and the impact of these and other factors on our employees, customers, partners and vendors;
the impact on our liquidity;
increased volatility and pricing in the capital markets;
the effect of the pandemic on the credit-worthiness of our customers;
global economic conditions and levels of economic growth; and
the pace of recovery when the COVID-19 pandemic subsides.

The occurrence or continuation of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our operations or financial performance.

The impact of COVID-19, and the volatile regional and global economic conditions stemming from the pandemic, may also precipitate or exacerbate other risks discussed in Item 1A. Risk Factors in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, any of which could have a material effect on us. This situation is changing rapidly and additional effects may arise that we are not presently aware of or that we currently do not consider to present significant risks to our operations. If we are not able to respond to and manage the impact of such events effectively, our business and financial condition will be negatively impacted.

Strategic and Operational Risks

We may not be able to maintain the quality of our existing products and services. We operate in a rapidly evolving market, and our success depends on our ability to deliver high quality and timely research and analysis to our clients. Any failure to continue to provide credible and reliable information and advice that is useful to our clients could have a material adverse effect on future business and operating results. Further, if our published data, opinions or viewpoints prove to be wrong, lack independence, or are not substantiated by appropriate research, our reputation will suffer and demand for our products and services may decline. In addition, we must continue to improve our methods for delivering our products and services in a cost-effective manner via the internet and mobile applications. Failure to maintain state of the art electronic delivery capabilities could materially adversely affect our future business and operating results.

We may not be able to enhance and develop our existing products and services or introduce the new products and services that are needed to remain competitive. The market for our products and services is characterized by rapidly changing needs for information and analysis. The development of new products is a complex and time-consuming process. Nonetheless, to maintain our competitive position, we must continue to anticipate the needs of our clients, develop, enhance and improve our existing products, as well as new products and services to address those needs, deliver all products and services in a timely, user-friendly and state of the art manner, and appropriately position and price new products and services relative to the marketplace and our costs of developing them. Any failure to achieve successful client acceptance of new products and services could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position. Additionally, significant delays in new product or service releases or significant problems in creating new products or services could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial position.

Technology is rapidly evolving, and if we do not continue to develop new product and service offerings in response to these changes, our business could suffer. Disruptive technologies are rapidly changing the environment in which we, our clients, and
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our competitors operate. We will need to continue to respond to these changes by enhancing our product and service offerings to maintain our competitive position. However, we may not be successful in responding to these forces and enhancing our products on a timely basis, and any enhancements we develop may not adequately address the changing needs of our clients. Our future success will depend upon our ability to develop and introduce in a timely manner new or enhanced existing offerings that address the changing needs of this constantly evolving marketplace. Failure to develop products that meet the needs of our clients in a timely manner could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial position.

In addition, some of our content is exposed to Internet search engines, which help generate website traffic. Search engines often update their proprietary algorithms, which could affect the placement of links to our websites. Some search engines also provide substantive content in search results, which, if expanded to the areas in which we operate, could reduce the need to enter our websites. If a major search engine changes its algorithms in a manner that negatively affects our placement in search results or makes it less likely for our target audience to enter our websites, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be harmed.

Our Research business depends on renewals of subscription-based services and sales of new subscription-based services for a significant portion of our revenue, and our failure to renew at historical rates or generate new sales of such services will lead to a decrease in our revenues. A large portion of our success depends on our ability to generate renewals of our subscription-based research products and services and new sales of such products and services, both to new clients and existing clients. These products and services constituted approximately 79% and 81% of total revenues from our on-going operations for 2021 and 2020, respectively. Generating new sales of our subscription-based products and services, both to new and existing clients, is a challenging, costly, and often time-consuming process. If we are unable to generate new sales, due to competition or other factors, our revenues will be adversely affected.

Our research subscription contracts are typically for twelve months or longer. Our ability to maintain contract renewals is subject to numerous factors, including the following:

delivering high-quality and timely analysis and advice to our clients;

understanding and anticipating market trends and the changing needs of our clients; and

providing products and services of the quality and timeliness necessary to withstand competition.

Additionally, as we continue to adjust our products and service offerings to meet our clients’ continuing needs, we may shift the type and pricing of our products which may impact client renewal rates. While our Research client retention rate was 86% and 83% at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, there can be no guarantee that we will continue to maintain this rate of client renewals.

The profitability and success of our conferences and other meetings are subject to external factors beyond our control. Our Conferences business constituted approximately 5% and 3% of total revenues from our on-going operations in 2021 and 2020, respectively. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we cancelled in-person conferences scheduled for 2020 beginning in late February/early March 2020 with the remainder being cancelled after the World Health Organization’s declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic later in March 2020. We began holding virtual conferences during the second half of 2020. We held 39 virtual conferences during 2021 and expect to continue to deliver conferences virtually during 2022. These virtual conferences are expected to result in significantly less revenue and gross contribution, but we believe aid in client retention and engagement.

We expect our Conferences revenues will continue to be negatively impacted until in-person conferences can be held. Moreover, our clients that typically attend these conferences may have pandemic-related travel restrictions in place that could affect attendance once these conferences resume. At this time, we also cannot predict the extent to which local governments may restrict in-person gatherings and what additional measures will be required to hold in-person conferences safely, such as providing masks, social distancing and increased sanitation. These safety requirements would likely cause us to incur additional costs and may limit the number of participants at our in-person conferences. In addition, perceived or actual spread of coronavirus at one of our conferences could cause reputational damage. The safety of our associates and clients remains our top priority so future in-person conferences will be held only if we determine the relevant impacts of COVID-19 have sufficiently receded in the jurisdictions where our conferences are to be held.

We also face risks related to insurance coverage for our cancelled conferences. Our event cancellation insurance provides up to $170 million in coverage for 2020 with the right to reinstate that amount one time if those limits are utilized. The insurer has contested our right to reinstate limits and to include in reinstated limits conferences cancelled due to COVID-19. Gartner also has event cancellation insurance for 2021, covering events that were planned for 2021 but cancelled, of up to $150 million with
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the right to reinstate up to that amount one time if the initial limits are inadequate. The insurer has contested all coverage for events cancelled in 2021 due to COVID-19. We are in litigation with the insurer on these issues. In 2021, we received $166.9 million of proceeds related to 2020 insurance claims and recorded a gain of $152.3 million. Our insurance coverage for 2022 (and likely beyond) however excludes cancellation due to communicable diseases. Our event cancellation insurer is seeking additional information for cancelled Evanta meetings to determine whether Gartner may be entitled to an additional $3.1 million in coverage for Evanta meetings cancelled in 2020. Gartner is seeking to reinstate and recover up to an additional $20 million for cancelled 2020 Evanta meetings and to reinstate and recover up to an additional $150 million in losses from cancelled 2020 destination conferences. Gartner is also seeking $150 million in initial limits for events cancelled in 2021 and to reinstate those limits up to an additional $150 million. It is unclear when we will receive the proceeds from our insurance claims related to the conferences cancelled, which could affect our financial results.

The market for desirable dates and locations for our activities has historically been highly competitive. Once we decide to resume in-person conferences, if we cannot secure desirable dates and suitable venues for our conferences the profitability for these conferences will suffer, and our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. In addition, because our conferences are scheduled in advance and held at specific locations, the success of these activities can be affected by circumstances outside of our control in addition to the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the occurrence of or concerns related to labor strikes, transportation shutdowns and travel restrictions, economic slowdowns, reductions in government spending, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, war, weather, natural disasters, communicable diseases, and other occurrences impacting the global, regional, or national economies, the occurrence of any of which could negatively impact the success of the conference or meeting. We also face the challenge of procuring venues that are sizeable enough at a reasonable cost to accommodate some of our major activities.

Our Consulting business depends on non-recurring engagements and our failure to secure new engagements could lead to a decrease in our revenues. Consulting segment revenues constituted approximately 9% of total revenues from our on-going operations in both 2021 and 2020. Consulting engagements typically are project-based and non-recurring. In addition, revenue from our contract optimization business can fluctuate significantly from period to period and is not predictable. Our ability to replace consulting engagements is subject to numerous factors, including the following:

delivering consistent, high-quality consulting services to our clients;

tailoring our consulting services to the changing needs of our clients; and

our ability to match the skills and competencies of our consulting staff to the skills required for the fulfillment of existing or potential consulting engagements.

A material decline in our ability to replace consulting engagements will have an adverse impact on our revenues and our financial condition.

We may not be able to attract and retain qualified personnel which could jeopardize the quality of our products and services and our future growth plans. Our success is based on attracting and retaining talented employees and we depend heavily upon the quality of our senior management, research analysts, consultants, sales and other key personnel. The market for highly skilled workers and leaders in our industry is extremely competitive. Maintaining our brand and reputation is important to our ability to recruit and retain employees. We face competition for qualified professionals from, among others, technology companies, market research firms, consulting firms, financial services companies and electronic and print media companies, some of which have a greater ability to attract and compensate these professionals. We face risks related to global labor shortages, and competitive markets have increased attrition throughout our sector. Moreover, vaccine mandates may result in increased employee attrition, if implemented. Additionally, some of the personnel that we attempt to hire are subject to non-compete agreements that could impede our short-term recruitment efforts. Our employee hiring and retention also depend on our ability to build and maintain a diverse and inclusive workplace culture that enables our employees to thrive. We may also be limited in our ability to recruit internationally by restrictive domestic immigration laws, and changes to policies that restrain the flow of technical and professional talent could inhibit our ability to adequately staff our research and development and other efforts.

An inability to retain key personnel or to hire and train additional qualified personnel could materially adversely affect the quality of our products and services, as well as our future business and operating results or stock price. In addition, effective succession planning is important to our long-term success, and failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions involving key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution.

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Additionally, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the vast majority of our employees transitioned to working from home. In early 2022, we began to operate under a hybrid virtual-first working environment, meaning that most of our employees have the option to work remotely at least some of the time for the foreseeable future. The hybrid working environment may impair our ability to maintain our culture of collaboration and continuous improvement, and may cause disruptions among our employees, including lost productivity, communication challenges and, potentially, employee dissatisfaction and attrition. If our attempts to safely reopen our offices and operate under a hybrid working environment are not successful, our business could be adversely impacted.

If we are unable to enforce and protect our intellectual property rights, our competitive position may be harmed. We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, trade secret, patent, confidentiality, non-compete and other contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property rights. Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights, unauthorized third parties may obtain and use technology or other information that we regard as proprietary. Our intellectual property rights may not survive a legal challenge to their validity or provide significant protection for us. The laws of certain countries, particularly in emerging markets, do not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Conducting business in certain foreign jurisdictions may require accepting compromised protections or yielding of rights to technology, data or intellectual property rights in order to access those markets. Accordingly, we may not be able to protect our intellectual property against unauthorized or undesired third-party copying or use, which could adversely affect our competitive position. Additionally, there can be no assurance that another party will not assert that we have infringed its intellectual property rights.

Our employees are subject to restrictive covenant agreements (which include restrictions on employees’ ability to compete and solicit customers and employees) and assignment of invention agreements, to the extent permitted under applicable law. When the period expires relating to their particular restrictions, former employees may compete against us. If a former employee violates the provisions of the restrictive covenant agreement, we seek to enforce the restrictions but there is no assurance that we will be successful in our efforts.

Privacy concerns could damage our reputation and deter current and potential clients from using our products and services or attending our conferences. Concerns relating to global data privacy have the potential to damage our reputation and deter current and prospective clients from using our products and services or attending our conferences. In the ordinary course of our business and in accordance with applicable laws, we collect personal information (i) from our employees, (ii) from the users of our products and services, including conference attendees, and (iii) from prospective clients. We collect only basic personal information from our clients and prospects. While we believe our overall data privacy procedures are adequate, the theft or loss of such data, or concerns about our practices, even if unfounded, with regard to the collection, use, disclosure, or security of this personal information or other data protection related matters could damage our reputation and materially adversely affect our operating results. Any systems failure or compromise of our security that results in the disclosure of our users’ personal data could seriously limit the consumption of our products and services and the attendance at our conferences, as well as harm our reputation and brand and, therefore, our business.

We are exposed to risks related to cybersecurity. A significant portion of our business is conducted over the internet and we rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential, sensitive, proprietary and other types of information relating to our business operations and confidential and sensitive information about its customers and employees in our computer systems and networks, and in those of our third-party vendors. Individuals, groups, and state-sponsored organizations may take steps that pose threats to our operations, our computer systems, our employees, and our customers. The cybersecurity risks we face range from cyber attacks common to most industries, such as the development and deployment of malicious software to gain access to our networks and attempt to steal confidential information, launch distributed denial of service attacks, or attempt other coordinated disruptions, to more advanced threats that target us because of our prominence in the global research and advisory field.

Like many multinational corporations, we, and some third parties upon which we rely, have experienced cyber attacks on our computer systems and networks in the past and may experience them in the future, likely with more frequency and sophistication, and involving a broader range of devices and modes of attack, all of which will increase the difficulty of detecting and successfully defending against them. To date, none have resulted in any material adverse impact to our business, operations, products, services or customers. We have implemented various security controls to both meet our security obligations, while also defending against constantly evolving security threats. Our security controls help to secure our information systems, including our computer systems, intranet, proprietary websites, email and other telecommunications and data networks, and we scrutinize the security of outsourced website and service providers prior to retaining their services. However, the security measures implemented by us or by our outside service providers may not be effective and our systems (and those of our outside service providers) are vulnerable to theft, loss, damage and interruption from a number of potential sources and events, including unauthorized access or security breaches, cyber attacks, computer viruses, power loss, or other disruptive events. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, most of our employees are working remotely, which magnifies the
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importance of the integrity of our remote access security measures. Additionally, the security compliance landscape continues to evolve, requiring us to stay apprised of changes in cybersecurity laws, regulations, and security requirements required by our clients, such as the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), the Brazilian General Data Protection Law (LGPD), the Chinese Cybersecurity, Data Security and Personal Information Protection laws (and other new and proposed data protection laws), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Recent well-publicized security breaches at other companies have led to enhanced government and regulatory scrutiny of the measures taken by companies to protect against cyber attacks, and may in the future result in heightened cybersecurity requirements, including additional regulatory expectations for oversight of vendors and service providers.

A cyber attack, widespread internet failure or internet access limitations, or disruption of our critical information technology systems through denial of service, viruses, or other events could cause delays in initiating or completing sales, impede delivery of our products and services to our clients, disrupt other critical client-facing or business processes or dislocate our critical internal functions. Additionally, any material breaches of cybersecurity or other technology-related catastrophe, or media reports of perceived security vulnerabilities to our systems or those of our third parties, even if no breach has been attempted or occurred, could cause us to experience reputational harm, loss of customers and revenue, fines, regulatory actions and scrutiny, sanctions or other statutory penalties, litigation, liability for failure to safeguard our customers’ information, or financial losses that are either not insured against or not fully covered through any insurance maintained by us.

Any of the foregoing may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

We may experience outages and disruptions of our online services if we fail to maintain an adequate operations infrastructure. Our increasing user traffic and complexity of our products and services demand more computing power. We have invested substantial amounts and expect to continue investing (as necessary) in access to data centers and equipment and in moving more of our workload into cloud services, upgrading our technology and network infrastructure to handle increased traffic on our websites, and delivering our products and services through emerging channels, such as mobile applications. However, any inefficiencies or operational failures could diminish the quality of our products, services, and user experience, resulting in damage to our reputation and loss of current and potential users, subscribers, and advertisers, potentially harming our financial condition and operating results.

We have grown, and may continue to grow, through acquisitions and strategic investments, which could involve substantial risks. We have made and may continue to make acquisitions of, or significant investments in, businesses that offer complementary products and services or otherwise support our growth objectives. The risks involved in each acquisition or investment include the possibility of paying more than the value we derive from the acquisition, dilution of the interests of our current stockholders should we issue stock in the acquisition, decreased working capital, increased indebtedness, the assumption of undisclosed liabilities and unknown and unforeseen risks, the ability to retain key personnel of the acquired company, the inability to integrate the business of the acquired company, increase revenue or fully realize anticipated synergies, the time to train the sales force to market and sell the products of the acquired business, the potential disruption of our ongoing business and the distraction of management from our day to day business. The realization of any of these risks could adversely affect our business. Additionally, we face competition in identifying acquisition targets and consummating acquisitions.

We face risks related to leased office space. We assumed a significant amount of leased office space, in particular in Arlington, Virginia, in connection with the acquisition of CEB Inc. in 2017. In Arlington, we have consolidated all our businesses into a single building and have sublet substantially all of the excess space in our other properties. Through our real estate consolidations and other related activities, we have tried to secure quality sub-tenants with appropriate sub-lease terms. However, if subtenants default on their sublease obligations with us or otherwise terminate their subleases with us, we may experience a loss of planned sublease rental income, which could result in a material charge against our operating results. Additionally, the long-term impact of COVID-19 on leased office space availability and rental costs of leased office space is not yet known.

To accommodate our growth going forward, we have moved to a global hoteling option to better manage our footprint and operating expenses, and will secure new space when the opportunities and need arise. If the new spaces are not completed on schedule, or if the landlord defaults on its commitments and obligations pursuant to the new leases, we may incur additional expenses. In addition, unanticipated difficulties in initiating operations in a new space, including construction delays, IT system interruptions, or other infrastructure support problems, could result in a delay in moving into the new space, resulting in a loss of employee and operational productivity and a loss of revenue and/or additional expenses, which could also have an adverse, material impact on our operating results.

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Our sales to governments are subject to appropriations and some may be terminated early. We derive significant revenues from research and consulting contracts with the United States government and its respective agencies, numerous state and local governments and their respective agencies, and foreign governments and their agencies. At December 31, 2021 and 2020, approximately $790 million and $689 million, respectively, of our outstanding revenue contracts were attributable to government entities. Our U.S. government contracts are subject to the approval of appropriations by the U.S. Congress to fund the agencies contracting for our services. Additionally, our contracts at the state and local levels, as well as foreign government contracts, are subject to various governmental authorizations and funding approvals and mechanisms. Certain of these contracts may be terminated at any time by the government entity without cause or penalty (“termination for convenience”). In addition, contracts with U.S. federal, state and local, and foreign governments and their respective agencies are subject to increasingly complex bidding procedures and compliance requirements, as well as intense competition. Failure to adequately abide by these procedures and compliance requirements could result in an inability to contract with governments or their agencies, termination of existing contracts, or even suspension and disbarment from doing future business with a government or agency. Moreover, while terminations by governments for lack of funding have not been significant historically, should appropriations for the various governments and agencies that contract with us be curtailed, or should our government contracts be terminated for convenience, we may experience a significant loss of revenues.

We may not be able to maintain the equity in our brand name. We believe that our “Gartner” brand, in particular our independence, is critical to our efforts to attract and retain clients and top talent, and that the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition increases. We may also discover that our brand, though recognized, is not perceived to be relevant by new market segments we have targeted. We may expand our marketing activities to promote and strengthen the Gartner brand and may need to increase our marketing budget, hire additional marketing and public relations personnel, and expend additional sums to protect our brand and otherwise increase expenditures to create and maintain client brand loyalty. If we fail to effectively promote, maintain, and protect the Gartner brand, or incur excessive expenses in doing so, our future business and operating results could be materially adversely impacted.

Our outstanding debt obligations could negatively impact our financial condition and future operating results. As of December 31, 2021, the Company had outstanding debt of $288 million under its 2020 term loan and revolving credit facility (the “2020 Credit Agreement”), $800 million of Senior Notes due 2028 (the “2028 Notes”), $600 million of Senior Notes due 2029 (the “2029 Notes”) and $800 million of Senior Notes due 2030 (the “2030 Notes”). Additional information regarding the 2020 Credit Agreement, the 2028 Notes, the 2029 Notes and the 2030 Notes is included in Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

The debt service requirements of these borrowings could impair our future financial condition and operating results. In addition, the affirmative, negative and financial covenants of the 2020 Credit Agreement, as well as the covenants related to the Senior Notes, could limit our future financial flexibility. A failure to comply with these covenants could result in acceleration of all amounts outstanding, which could materially impact our financial condition unless accommodations could be negotiated with our lenders and noteholders. No assurance can be given that we would be successful in doing so, or that any accommodations that we were able to negotiate would be on terms as favorable as those currently in place. The outstanding debt may limit the amount of cash or additional credit available to us, which could restrain our ability to expand or enhance products and services, respond to competitive pressures or pursue future business opportunities requiring substantial investments of additional capital.

In addition, variable-rate borrowings under our 2020 Credit Agreement typically use LIBOR as a benchmark based on market participant judgments for establishing the rate of interest. LIBOR is the subject of recent national and international regulatory scrutiny, which is expected to result in changes that cause LIBOR to disappear entirely after June 2023 for rates applicable to the 2020 Credit Agreement and our existing derivatives contracts, and as of December 2021 for any new debt and derivatives contracts that we may enter into. The changes may also cause LIBOR to perform differently than in the past. The Alternative Reference Rates Committee (ARRC), which was convened by the Federal Reserve Board and the New York Fed, has identified the Secured Oversight Financing Rate (SOFR) as the recommended risk-free alternative rate for USD LIBOR. The future consequences of these LIBOR developments on our variable-rate borrowings, including the possible transition to rates based on observable transactions, such as the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR), cannot be predicted at this time, but could include an increase in the cost of our variable-rate indebtedness and volatility in our earnings.

We may require additional cash resources which may not be available on favorable terms or at all. We may require additional cash resources due to changed business conditions, implementation of our strategy and stock repurchase program, to repay indebtedness or to pursue future business opportunities requiring substantial investments of additional capital, including acquisitions. If our existing financial resources are insufficient to satisfy our requirements, we may seek additional borrowings or issue debt. Prevailing credit and debt market conditions may negatively affect debt availability and cost, and, as a result, financing may not be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. In addition, the incurrence of additional
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indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could require us to agree to operating and financial covenants that would further restrict our operations.

Natural disasters, pandemics, terrorist acts, war, actions by governments, and other geopolitical activities could disrupt our operations. We operate in numerous U.S. and international locations, and we have offices in a number of major cities across the globe. The occurrence of, or concerns related to, a major weather event, earthquake, flood, drought, volcanic activity, disease or pandemic, or other natural disaster could significantly disrupt our operations. In addition, acts of civil unrest, failure of critical infrastructure, terrorism, armed conflict, war, and abrupt political change, as well as responses by various governments and the international community to such acts, can have a negative effect on our business. Such events could cause delays in initiating or completing sales, impede delivery of our products and services to our clients, disrupt or shut down the internet or other critical client-facing and business processes, impede the travel of our personnel and clients, dislocate our critical internal functions and personnel, and in general harm our ability to conduct normal business operations, any of which can negatively impact our financial condition and operating results. Such events could also impact the timing and budget decisions of our clients, which could materially adversely affect our business.

Macroeconomic and Industry Risks

We are subject to risks from operating globally. We have clients in approximately 100 countries and territories and a substantial amount of our revenue is earned outside of the United States. Our operating results are subject to all of the risks typically inherent in international business activities, including general political and economic conditions in each country, challenges in staffing and managing foreign operations, changes in regulatory requirements, compliance with numerous and complex foreign laws and regulations, currency restrictions and fluctuations, the difficulty of enforcing client agreements, collecting accounts receivable and protecting intellectual property rights including against economic espionage in international jurisdictions. Further, we rely on local distributors or sales agents in some international locations. If any of these arrangements are terminated by our agent or us, we may not be able to replace the arrangement on beneficial terms or on a timely basis, or clients of the local distributor or sales agent may not want to continue to do business with us or our new agent.

Additionally, tariffs, trade barriers and restrictions, and other acts by governments to protect domestic markets or to retaliate against the trade tariffs and restrictions of other nations could negatively affect our business operations. In addition, the withdrawal of nations from existing common markets or trading blocs, such as the exit of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (the EU), commonly referred to as Brexit, could be disruptive and negatively impact our business and the business of our clients. We continue to monitor Brexit and its potential impacts on our results of operations and financial condition. In connection with Brexit, in December, 2020, the EU and the United Kingdom reached an agreement on a new trade arrangement that became effective on January 1, 2021. Depending on the application of the terms of the trade and cooperation agreement, there could be near or long-term negative impacts on our UK business due to regulatory costs and challenges for us and our clients who have significant operations in the United Kingdom. The impact of any of these effects of Brexit, among others, could materially harm our business and financial results.

Our operating results could be negatively impacted by global economic conditions. Our business is impacted by general economic conditions and trends in the United States and abroad. In its recent report, Global Economics Prospects, January 2022, the World Bank reported that following a collapse in 2020 caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, global economic growth is estimated to have surged to 5.5% in 2021. Notwithstanding this annual increase, according to the report, resurgences of the COVID-19 pandemic and widespread supply bottlenecks weighed appreciably on global activity in the second half of 2021. Reflecting these bottlenecks, as well as the recovery in global demand and rising food and energy prices, the World Bank notes that global consumer price inflation and its near-term expectations have increased more than previously anticipated. The report also notes that labor markets in advanced economies have tightened, supporting a rebound in wage inflation, Against this backdrop, the World Bank predicted the global economy is set to experience its sharpest slowdown after an initial rebound from a global recession since at least the 1970s. Global growth is projected to decelerate from 5.5 percent in 2021 to 4.1 percent in 2022, reflecting continued COVID-19 flare-ups, diminished policy support, and lingering supply disruptions. Per the World Bank, global growth is envisioned to slow further in 2023, to 3.2 percent, as pent-up demand is depleted and supportive macroeconomic policies continue to be unwound. A downturn in growth could negatively and materially affect future demand for our products and services in general, in certain geographic regions, in particular countries, or industry sectors. In addition, U.S. federal, state and local government spending limits may reduce demand for our products and services from those governmental agencies as well as organizations that receive funding from those agencies, and could negatively affect macroeconomic conditions in the United States, which could further reduce demand for our products and services. Such difficulties could negatively impact our ability to maintain or improve the various business measurements we utilize (which are defined in this Annual Report), such as contract value and consulting backlog growth, client retention, wallet retention, consulting utilization rates, and the number of attendees and exhibitors at our conferences and other meetings. Failure to
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achieve acceptable levels of these measurements or improve them will negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We face significant competition and our failure to compete successfully could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows. The markets for our products and services are characterized by intense competition and we face direct competition from a significant number of independent providers of information products and services, including information available on the internet free of charge. We also compete indirectly against consulting firms and other information providers, including electronic and print media companies, some of which have greater financial, information gathering and marketing resources than we do. These indirect competitors could also choose to compete directly with us in the future. In addition, low barriers to entry exist in the markets in which we do business. As a result, new competitors may emerge, and existing competitors may start to provide additional or complementary services. Additionally, technological advances may provide increased competition from a variety of sources.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully compete against current and future competitors and our failure to do so will result in loss of market share, diminished value in our products and services, reduced pricing and increased marketing expenditures. Furthermore, we will not be successful if we cannot compete effectively on quality of research and analysis, timely delivery of information, customer service, the ability to offer products to meet changing market needs for information and analysis, or price.

We are exposed to volatility in foreign currency exchange rates from our international operations. A significant portion of our revenues are typically derived from sales outside of the United States. Revenues earned outside the United States are typically transacted in local currencies, which may fluctuate significantly against the U.S. dollar. While we use forward exchange contracts to a limited extent to seek to mitigate foreign currency risk, our revenues and results of operations could be adversely affected by unfavorable foreign currency fluctuations.

Our business could be negatively impacted by climate change. While we seek to mitigate the business risks associated with climate change for our operations, there are inherent climate-related risks wherever business is conducted. Access to clean water and reliable energy in the communities where we conduct our business, whether for our offices, clients, vendors or other stakeholders is a priority. We have large offices in Connecticut, Florida, India, Australia, and other locations that are vulnerable to climate change effects. Changing market dynamics, global policy developments, and the increasing frequency and impact of extreme weather events on critical infrastructure in the U.S. and elsewhere have the potential to disrupt our business, the business of our vendors, and the business clients, and may cause us to experience higher attrition, losses and additional costs to maintain or resume operations.

Legal and Regulatory Risks

Our failure to comply with complex U.S. and foreign laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our operations or financial condition. Our business and operations may be conducted in countries where corruption has historically penetrated the economy. It is our policy to comply, and to require our local partners, distributors, agents, and those with whom we do business to comply, with all applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the UK Bribery Act, regulations established by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) and with applicable local laws of the foreign countries in which we operate. There can be no assurance that all of our employees, contractors and agents will comply with the Company’s policies that mandate compliance with these laws. Any determination that we have violated or are responsible for violations of these laws, even if inadvertent, could be costly and disrupt our business, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows, as well as on our reputation. For example, during the second half of 2018 we cooperated fully with a South African government commission established to review a wide range of issues related to the country’s revenue service, including the procurement and fulfillment of consulting agreements we entered into with the revenue service through a sales agent from late 2014 through early 2017. We fully cooperated with the commission and in parallel, we commenced an internal investigation regarding this matter. We voluntarily disclosed the matter to the SEC and Department of Justice (DOJ) in November 2018 and are cooperating fully with their review, including executing tolling agreements. At this time, we do not believe the ultimate outcome of these matters will have a material effect on our financial results, however, an unexpected adverse resolution of these matters could negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.

In addition, continuously evolving data protection laws and regulations, such as the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the decision in the Schrems II case, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), the Brazilian General Data Protection Law (LGPD), the Chinese Cybersecurity, Data Security and Personal Information laws and other new and proposed data protection laws, pose increasingly complex compliance challenges. We have implemented GDPR, CCPA
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and LGPD compliance programs. In the meantime, Gartner will continue to maintain and rely upon our comprehensive global data protection compliance program, which includes administrative, technical, and physical controls to safeguard our associates’ and clients’ personal data. The interpretation and application of these laws in the United States, the EU and elsewhere are often uncertain, inconsistent and ever changing. Complying with these various laws could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner adverse to our business.

We face risks related to litigation. We are, and in the future may be, subject to a variety of legal actions, such as employment, breach of contract, intellectual property-related, and business torts, including claims of unfair trade practices and misappropriation of trade secrets. Given the nature of our business, we are also subject to defamation (including libel and slander), negligence, or other claims relating to the information we publish. Regardless of the merits of any claim and despite vigorous efforts to defend any such claim, claims can affect our reputation, and responding to any such claim could be time consuming, result in costly litigation and require us to enter into settlements, royalty and licensing agreements which may not be offered or available on reasonable terms. If a claim is made against us that we cannot defend or resolve on reasonable terms, our business, brand, and financial results could be materially adversely affected.

We face risks related to taxation. We are a global company and a substantial amount of our earnings is generated outside of the United States and taxed at rates other than the U.S. statutory federal income tax rate. Our effective tax rate, financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected by earnings being higher than anticipated in jurisdictions with higher statutory tax rates and, conversely, lower than anticipated in jurisdictions that have lower statutory tax rates, by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and/or by changes in tax laws or accounting principles and their interpretation by relevant authorities.

Corporate tax reform, base-erosion efforts and tax transparency continue to be high priorities in many countries. Tax reform legislation is being proposed or enacted in a number of jurisdictions where we do business. During 2015, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) released final reports on various action items associated with its initiative to prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS). In 2020, the OECD further proposed a two-pillar approach to global taxation (BEPS 2.0), focusing on global profit allocation and a global minimum tax rate and in December of 2021, both the OECD and the EU released model rules and draft directives with respect to global minimum tax. The future enactment by various governments of these and other proposals could significantly increase our tax obligations in many countries where we do business. These actual, potential, and other changes, both individually and collectively, could materially increase our effective tax rate and negatively impact our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. We will continue to monitor and reflect the impact of such legislative changes in future financial statements as appropriate.

In addition, our tax filings for various years are subject to examination by domestic and international taxing authorities and, during the ordinary course of business, we are under audit by various tax authorities. Recent and future actions on the part of the OECD and various governments have increased scrutiny of our tax filings. Although we believe that our tax filings and related accruals are reasonable, the final resolution of tax audits may be materially different from what is reflected in our historical tax provisions and accruals and could have a material adverse effect on our effective tax rate, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately $120.1 million of accumulated undistributed earnings in our non-U.S. subsidiaries. Our cash and cash equivalents are held in numerous locations throughout the world. At December 31, 2021, 31% of our cash and cash equivalents was held overseas, with a substantial portion representing accumulated undistributed earnings of our non-U.S. subsidiaries. Under generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America, no provision for income taxes that may result from the remittance of accumulated undistributed foreign earnings is required if the Company intends to reinvest such earnings overseas indefinitely. The Company intends to continue to reinvest its accumulated undistributed foreign earnings, except in instances where the repatriation of those earnings would result in minimal additional tax. As a result, we have not recognized income tax expense on the amounts deemed permanently reinvested.

Our corporate compliance program cannot guarantee that we are in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations. We operate in a number of countries, including emerging markets, and as a result we are required to comply with numerous, and in many cases, changing international and U.S. federal, state and local laws and regulations. Accordingly, we have a corporate compliance program that includes the creation of appropriate policies defining employee behavior that mandate adherence to laws, employee training, annual affirmations, monitoring and enforcement. However, failure of any employee to comply with any of these laws, regulations or our policies, could result in a range of liabilities for the employee and for the Company, including, but not limited to, significant penalties and fines, sanctions and/or litigation, and the expenses associated with defending and resolving any of the foregoing, any of which could have a negative impact on our reputation and business.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock
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Our anti-takeover protections may discourage or prevent a change of control, even if a change in control would be beneficial to our stockholders. Provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law may make it difficult for any party to acquire control of us in a transaction not approved by our Board of Directors. These provisions include: (i) the ability of our Board of Directors to issue and determine the terms of preferred stock; (ii) advance notice requirements for inclusion of stockholder proposals at stockholder meetings; and (iii) the anti-takeover provisions of Delaware law. These provisions could discourage or prevent a change of control or change in management that might provide stockholders with a premium to the market price of their common stock.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.

None.
 
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.

As of December 31, 2021, we leased approximately 20 domestic and 65 international office properties for our ongoing business operations. These offices, which exclude certain properties that we sublease to others, support our executive and administrative activities, research and consulting, sales, systems support, operations, and other functions. Our corporate office is based in Stamford, Connecticut. We also maintain an important presence in: Fort Myers, Florida; Arlington, Virginia; Egham, the United Kingdom; Gurgaon, India; Irving, Texas; and Barcelona, Spain. The Company does not own any real property.

Our Stamford corporate headquarters is comprised of leased office space in three buildings located on the same campus. Our lease for the Stamford headquarters facility expires in 2027 and contains three five-year renewal options at fair value.

In early 2022, we began to operate under a hybrid virtual-first working environment, meaning that most of our employees have the option to work remotely at least some of the time for the foreseeable future. As a result, we believe our current real estate footprint is sufficient to support future growth.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.

We are involved in legal and administrative proceedings and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. We believe that the potential liability, if any, in excess of amounts already accrued from all proceedings, claims and litigation will not have a material effect on our financial position, cash flows or results of operations when resolved in a future period.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.

Not applicable.

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PART II  

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “IT”. As of February 17, 2022, there were 1,010 holders of record of our common stock. Our 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders will be held virtually on June 2, 2022.
 
SECURITIES AUTHORIZED FOR ISSUANCE UNDER EQUITY COMPENSATION PLANS
 
The equity compensation plan information set forth in Part III, Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is hereby incorporated by reference into this Part II, Item 5.

SHARE REPURCHASES

In May 2015, our Board of Directors (the “Board”) authorized a share repurchase program to repurchase up to $1.2 billion of our common stock. The Board authorized incremental share repurchases of up to an additional $300.0 million, $500.0 million, $800.0 million and $500.0 million of the Company’s common stock in February 2021, April 2021, July 2021 and February 2022, respectively. The Company may repurchase its common stock from time-to-time in amounts, at prices and in the manner that the Company deems appropriate, subject to the availability of stock, prevailing market conditions, the trading price of the stock, the Company’s financial performance and other conditions. Repurchases may be made through open market purchases (which may include repurchase plans designed to comply with Rule 10b5-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended), accelerated share repurchases, private transactions or other transactions and will be funded by cash on hand and borrowings. Repurchases may also be made from time-to-time in connection with the settlement of the Company’s stock-based compensation awards. The table below summarizes the repurchases of our common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2021 pursuant to our share repurchase program and the settlement of stock-based compensation awards.
PeriodTotal Number of Shares Purchased
(#)
Average Price Paid Per Share
($)
Total Number of Shares Purchased Under Announced Programs
(#)
Maximum Approximate Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
(in thousands)
October 1, 2021 to October 31, 2021579,246 $311.67 578,486 $595,976 
November 1, 2021 to November 30, 202148,522 331.00 15,290 590,976 
December 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021437 332.30 — $590,976 
   Total for the quarter (1)628,205 $313.18 593,776 
(1)The repurchased shares during the three months ended December 31, 2021 included purchases for both the settlement of stock-based compensation awards and open market purchases.

ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
 
The purpose of this Management’s Discussion and Analysis (“MD&A”) is to facilitate an understanding of significant factors influencing the operating results, financial condition and cash flows of Gartner, Inc. Additionally, the MD&A conveys our expectations of the potential impact of known trends, events or uncertainties that may impact future results. You should read this discussion in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Historical results and percentage relationships are not necessarily indicative of operating results for future periods. References to “Gartner,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” in this MD&A are to Gartner, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

This MD&A provides an analysis of our consolidated financial results, segment results and cash flows for 2021 and 2020 under the headings “Results of Operations,” “Segment Results” and “Liquidity and Capital Resources.” For a similar detailed discussion comparing 2020 and 2019, refer to those headings under Item 7., “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.
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In addition to GAAP results, we provide foreign currency neutral dollar amounts and percentages for our revenues, certain expenses, contract values and other metrics. These foreign currency neutral dollar amounts and percentages eliminate the effects of exchange rate fluctuations and thus provide a more accurate and meaningful trend in the underlying data being measured. We calculate foreign currency neutral dollar amounts by converting the underlying amounts in local currency for different periods into U.S. dollars by applying the same foreign exchange rates to all periods presented.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

In addition to historical information, this Annual Report on Form 10-K contains certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements are any statements other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our expectations, beliefs, hopes, intentions, projections or strategies regarding the future. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “should,” “could,” “believe,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue” or other words of similar meaning.

We operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment that involves numerous known and unknown risks and uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in any of our forward-looking statements are reasonable, actual results could differ materially from those projected or assumed in any of our forward-looking statements. Our future quarterly and annual revenues, operating income, results of operations and cash flows, as well as any forward-looking statement, are subject to change and to inherent risks and uncertainties, such as those disclosed or incorporated by reference in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Important factors that could cause our actual results, performance and achievements, or industry results to differ materially from estimates or projections contained in our forward-looking statements include, among others, the following: uncertainty of the magnitude, duration, geographic reach and impact on the global economy of the COVID-19 pandemic; the current, and uncertain future, impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and governments’ responses to it on our business, growth, reputation, projections, prospects, financial condition, operations, cash flows, and liquidity; the adequacy or effectiveness of steps we take to respond to the crisis; our ability to recover potential claims under our event cancellation insurance; the timing of conferences and meetings, in particular our Gartner Symposium/Xpo series that normally occurs during the fourth quarter, as well as the timing of our return to in-person conferences and meetings and willingness of participants to attend; our ability to achieve and effectively manage growth, including our ability to integrate our acquisitions and consummate and integrate future acquisitions; our ability to pay our debt obligations; our ability to maintain and expand our products and services; our ability to expand or retain our customer base; our ability to grow or sustain revenue from individual customers; our ability to attract and retain a professional staff of research analysts and consultants as well as experienced sales personnel upon whom we are dependent; our ability to achieve continued customer renewals and achieve new contract value, backlog and deferred revenue growth in light of competitive pressures; our ability to carry out our strategic initiatives and manage associated costs; our ability to successfully compete with existing competitors and potential new competitors; our ability to enforce and protect our intellectual property rights; additional risks associated with international operations, including foreign currency fluctuations; the U.K.’s exit from the European Union and its impact on our results; the impact of restructuring and other charges on our businesses and operations; cybersecurity incidents; general economic conditions; changes in macroeconomic and market conditions and market volatility (including developments and volatility arising from the COVID-19 pandemic), including interest rates and the effect on the credit markets and access to capital; risks associated with the creditworthiness, budget cuts, and shutdown of governments and agencies; the impact of changes in tax policy and heightened scrutiny from various taxing authorities globally; uncertainty from the expected discontinuance of LIBOR and transition to any other interest rate benchmark; changes to laws and regulations; and other risks and uncertainties. The potential fluctuations in our operating income could cause period-to-period comparisons of operating results not to be meaningful and could provide an unreliable indication of future operating results. A description of the risk factors associated with our business is included under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Forward-looking statements are subject to risks, estimates and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed in, or implied by, the forward-looking statements, and are currently, or in the future could be, amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, those listed above or described under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Readers should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect management’s opinion only as of the date on which they were made. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K speak only as of the date hereof, and forward-looking statements in documents attached that are incorporated by reference speak only as of the date of those documents. Except as required by law, we disclaim any obligation to review or update these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances as they occur.

BUSINESS OVERVIEW
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Gartner, Inc. (NYSE: IT) delivers actionable, objective insight to executives and their teams. Our expert guidance and tools enable faster, smarter decisions and stronger performance on an organization’s mission critical priorities.

We are a trusted advisor and an objective resource for more than 15,000 enterprises in approximately 100 countries and territories — across all major functions, in every industry and enterprise size.

Gartner delivers its products and services globally through three business segments – Research, Conferences and Consulting, as described below.

Research equips executives and their teams from every function and across all industries with actionable, objective insight, guidance and tools. Our experienced experts deliver all this value informed by a combination of practitioner-sourced and data-driven research to help our clients address their mission critical priorities.

Conferences provides executives and teams across an organization the opportunity to learn, share and network. From our Gartner Symposium/Xpo series, to industry-leading conferences focused on specific business roles and topics, to peer-driven sessions, our offerings enable attendees to experience the best of Gartner insight and guidance.

Consulting serves senior executives leading technology-driven strategic initiatives leveraging the power of Gartner’s actionable, objective insight. Through custom analysis and on-the-ground support we enable optimized technology investments and stronger performance on our clients’ mission critical priorities.

COVID-19 Impact

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we temporarily closed Gartner offices around the world and implemented significant travel restrictions. Although we have reopened most offices and have plans to reopen substantially all remaining offices in early 2022, health and safety permitting, reopening is subject to many factors outside of our control. The vast majority of our employees transitioned to working from home. In early 2022, we began to operate under a hybrid virtual-first working environment, meaning that most of our employees will have the option to work remotely at least some of the time, for the foreseeable future. As a result, in the fourth quarter of 2021 we evaluated our real estate footprint globally, and determined that certain of our leased locations are no longer necessary for our operations. This evaluation resulted in the impairment of right-of-use assets and other long-lived assets, net of a reduction in lease liabilities, of $49.5 million related to certain office locations we no longer intend to use. We expect to continue to evaluate our real estate footprint globally. If we determine there is any additional excess property, there is no assurance that we will be able to sublease any such excess properties or that we will not incur costs in connection with such exit activities, which may be material. As of the date of this filing, we do not believe our work from home protocol has affected our internal controls over financial reporting.

Of the three business segments in which we operate, Research and Consulting have returned to growth levels that were in line with our growth prior to the pandemic. However, Conferences continues to be negatively impacted. We cancelled in-person conferences scheduled for 2020 beginning in late February/early March 2020 with the remainder being cancelled after the World Health Organization’s declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic later in March 2020. We began holding virtual conferences during the second half of 2020. We held 39 virtual conferences during the year ended December 31, 2021 and expect to continue to deliver conferences virtually during 2022. These virtual conferences have resulted in significantly less revenue and gross contribution than in-person conferences, but we believe they aid in client retention and engagement. We are operationally planning to re-launch in-person destination conferences when conditions permit.

For cancelled conferences, our event cancellation insurance enables us to receive an amount up to expected revenues, plus incurred expenses minus saved expense. Our event cancellation insurance provides up to $170 million in coverage for 2020 with the right to reinstate that amount one time if those limits are utilized. The insurer has contested our right to reinstate limits. Gartner also has event cancellation insurance for 2021, covering events that were planned for 2021 but cancelled, of up to $150 million with the right to reinstate up to that amount one time if the initial limits are inadequate. The insurer has contested all coverage for events planned for 2021 but cancelled due to COVID-19. We are in litigation with the insurer on these issues. In 2021, we received $166.9 million of proceeds related to 2020 insurance claims, and recorded a gain of $152.3 million. The timing of receiving the remaining proceeds from 2020 and 2021 insurance claims is uncertain so we will not record any insurance claims in excess of expenses incurred related to the remaining claims until the receipt of the insurance proceeds is deemed to be realizable. Our insurance coverage for 2022 (and likely beyond) excludes cancellation due to communicable diseases.

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In response to the pandemic’s impacts to our business, we implemented cost avoidance initiatives in the first half of 2020 including significant limitations on hiring and third-party spending, reductions to discretionary spending and elimination of non-essential travel and re-prioritization of capital expenditures. We began to restore certain investments in the business during the second half of 2020 and accelerated these investments in 2021. We expect these investments to increase in future periods, which may have a negative impact on operating margins.



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BUSINESS MEASUREMENTS

We believe that the following business measurements are important performance indicators for our business segments:
BUSINESS SEGMENTBUSINESS MEASUREMENT
Research
Total contract value represents the dollar value attributable to all of our subscription-related contracts. It is calculated as the annualized value of all contracts in effect at a specific point in time, without regard to the duration of the contract. Total contract value primarily includes Research deliverables for which revenue is recognized on a ratable basis, as well as other deliverables (primarily Conferences tickets) for which revenue is recognized when the deliverable is utilized. Comparing contract value year-over-year not only measures the short-term growth of our business, but also signals the long-term health of our Research subscription business since it measures revenue that is highly likely to recur over a multi-year period. Our total contract value consists of Global Technology Sales contract value, which includes sales to users and providers of technology, and Global Business Sales contract value, which includes sales to all other functional leaders.
Client retention rate represents a measure of client satisfaction and renewed business relationships at a specific point in time. Client retention is calculated on a percentage basis by dividing our current clients, who were also clients a year ago, by all clients from a year ago. Client retention is calculated at an enterprise level, which represents a single company or customer.
Wallet retention rate represents a measure of the amount of contract value we have retained with clients over a twelve-month period. Wallet retention is calculated on a percentage basis by dividing the contract value of our current clients, who were also clients a year ago, by the total contract value from a year ago, excluding the impact of foreign currency exchange. When wallet retention exceeds client retention, it is an indication of retention of higher-spending clients, or increased spending by retained clients, or both. Wallet retention is calculated at an enterprise level, which represents a single company or customer.
Conferences
Number of destination conferences represents the total number of hosted virtual or in-person conferences completed during the period. Single day, local meetings are excluded.
Number of destination conferences attendees represents the total number of people who attend virtual or in-person conferences. Single day, local meetings are excluded.
Consulting
Consulting backlog represents future revenue to be derived from in-process consulting and measurement engagements.
Utilization rate represents a measure of productivity of our consultants. Utilization rates are calculated for billable headcount on a percentage basis by dividing total hours billed by total hours available to bill.
Billing rate represents earned billable revenue divided by total billable hours.
Average annualized revenue per billable headcount represents a measure of the revenue generating ability of an average billable consultant and is calculated periodically by multiplying the average billing rate per hour times the utilization percentage times the billable hours available for one year.

 
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF OPERATIONS AND FINANCIAL POSITION
We have executed a strategy since 2005 to drive revenue and earnings growth. The fundamentals of our strategy include a focus on creating actionable, objective insight for executive leaders and their teams, delivering innovative and highly differentiated product offerings, building a strong sales capability, providing world class client service with a focus on client engagement and retention, and continuously improving our operational effectiveness.

We had total revenues of $4.7 billion in 2021, an increase of 15% compared to 2020 on a reported basis and 14% excluding the foreign currency impact. Net income increased to $793.6 million in 2021 from $266.7 million in 2020 and, as a result, diluted earnings per share was $9.21 in 2021 compared to $2.96 in 2020.

Research revenues increased to $4.1 billion in 2021, an increase of 14% compared to 2020 on a reported basis and 12.0% excluding the foreign currency impact. The Research gross contribution margin was 74% and 72% in 2021 and 2020, respectively. Total contract value was $4.2 billion at December 31, 2021, an increase of 16% compared to December 31, 2020 on a foreign currency neutral basis.

Conferences revenues increased to $214.4 million in 2021, an increase of 78% compared to 2020 both on a reported basis and excluding the foreign currency impact. The Conferences gross contribution margin was 62% and 48% in 2021 and 2020, respectively. We held 39 virtual conferences in 2021, and 5 in-person and 15 virtual conferences in 2020.

Consulting revenues increased to $418.1 million in 2021, an increase of 11% compared to 2020 on a reported basis and 9% excluding the foreign currency impact. The Consulting gross contribution margin was 38% and 31% in 2021 and 2020, respectively. Backlog was $116.7 million at December 31, 2021.

Cash provided by operating activities was $1.3 billion and $903.3 million during 2021 and 2020, respectively. As of December 31, 2021, we had $756.5 million of cash and cash equivalents and approximately $1.0 billion of available borrowing capacity on our revolving credit facility. During 2021, we repurchased 7.3 million shares of the Company’s common stock for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $1.7 billion.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires the application of appropriate accounting policies and the use of estimates. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 1 — Business and Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Management considers the policies discussed below to be critical to an understanding of our consolidated financial statements because their application requires complex and subjective management judgments and estimates. Specific risks for these critical accounting policies are also described below.

The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions about future events. We develop our estimates using both current and historical experience, as well as other factors, including the general economic environment and actions we may take in the future. We adjust such estimates when facts and circumstances dictate. However, our estimates may involve significant uncertainties and judgments and cannot be determined with precision. In addition, these estimates are based on our best judgment at a point in time and, as such, they may ultimately differ materially from actual results. Ongoing changes in our estimates could be material and would be reflected in the Company’s consolidated financial statements in future periods.

Our critical accounting policies and estimates are described below.

Revenue recognition — Our revenue by significant source is accounted for as follows:

Research revenues are mainly derived from subscription contracts for research products. The related revenues are deferred and recognized ratably over the applicable contract term. Fees derived from assisting organizations in selecting the right business software for their needs are recognized when the leads are provided to vendors.

Conferences revenues are deferred and recognized upon the completion of the related conference or meeting.

Consulting revenues are principally generated from fixed fee or time and materials engagements. Revenues from fixed fee contracts are recognized as we work to satisfy our performance obligations. Revenues from time and materials engagements are recognized as work is delivered and/or services are provided. Revenues related to contract optimization engagements are contingent in nature and are only recognized upon satisfaction of all conditions related to their payment.
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The majority of our Research contracts are billable upon signing, absent special terms granted on a limited basis from time to time. Research contracts are generally non-cancelable and non-refundable, except for government contracts that may have cancellation or fiscal funding clauses. It is our policy to record the amount of a subscription contract that is billable as a fee receivable at the time the contract is signed with a corresponding amount as deferred revenue because the contract represents a legally enforceable claim.

Note 1 — Business and Significant Accounting Policies and Note 9 — Revenue and Related Matters in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provide additional information regarding our revenues.

Accounting for income taxes — The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. We estimate our income taxes in each of the jurisdictions where the Company operates. This process involves estimating our current tax expense or benefit together with assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are included in our consolidated balance sheets. When assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, we consider if it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. In making this assessment, we consider the availability of loss carryforwards, projected reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. The Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained based on the technical merits of the position. Recognized tax positions are measured at the largest amount of benefit with greater than a 50% likelihood of being realized. The Company uses estimates in determining the amount of unrecognized tax benefits associated with uncertain tax positions. Significant judgment is required in evaluating tax law and measuring the benefits likely to be realized. Uncertain tax positions are periodically re-evaluated and adjusted as more information about their ultimate realization becomes available.

Accounting for stock-based compensation — The Company accounts for stock-based compensation awards in accordance with FASB ASC Topics 505 and 718 and SEC Staff Accounting Bulletins No. 107 and No. 110. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense, which is based on the fair value of the award on the date of grant, over the related service period. Note 10 — Stock-Based Compensation in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding stock-based compensation. Determining the appropriate fair value model and calculating the fair value of stock-based compensation awards requires the use of certain subjective assumptions, including the expected life of a stock-based compensation award and the Company’s common stock price volatility. In addition, determining the appropriate periodic stock-based compensation expense requires management to estimate the likelihood of the achievement of certain performance targets. The assumptions used in calculating the fair values of stock-based compensation awards and the related periodic expense represent management’s best estimates, which involve inherent uncertainties and the application of judgment. As a result, if circumstances change and the Company deems it necessary in the future to modify the assumptions it made or to use different assumptions, or if the quantity and nature of the Company’s stock-based compensation awards changes, then the amount of expense may need to be adjusted and future stock-based compensation expense could be materially different from what has been recorded in the current period.

A change in any of the terms or conditions of stock-based compensation awards is accounted for as a modification of the award. Incremental compensation cost is measured as the excess, if any, of the fair value of the modified award over the fair value of the original award immediately before its terms are modified, measured based on the fair value of the awards at the modification date. For vested awards, we recognize incremental compensation cost in the period the modification occurs. For unvested awards, we recognize any incremental compensation expense at the modification date or ratably over the requisite remaining service period, as appropriate. If the fair value of the modified award is lower than the fair value of the original award immediately before modification, the minimum compensation cost we recognize is the cost of the original award.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Consolidated Results

The table below presents an analysis of selected line items and year-over-year changes in our Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years indicated (in thousands).
 Year Ended December 31, 2021Year Ended December 31, 2020Increase (Decrease)Percentage Increase
(Decrease)
Total revenues$4,733,962 $4,099,403 $634,559 15 %
Costs and expenses:    
     Cost of services and product development1,444,093 1,345,024 99,069 
     Selling, general and administrative2,155,658 2,038,963 116,695 
     Depreciation102,802 93,925 8,877 
     Amortization of intangibles109,603 125,059 (15,456)(12)
     Acquisition and integration charges6,055 6,282 (227)(4)
Operating income915,751 490,150 425,601 87 
Interest expense, net(116,620)(113,549)3,071 
Gain on event cancellation insurance claims152,310 — 152,310 nm
Loss on extinguishment of debt— (44,814)44,814 nm
Other income (expense), net18,429 (5,654)24,083 >(100)
Less: Provision for income taxes176,310 59,388 116,922 197 
Net income$793,560 $266,745 $526,815 197 %
nm = not meaningful

Total revenues for 2021 were $4.7 billion, an increase of $634.6 million compared to 2020, or 15% on a reported basis and 14% excluding the foreign currency impact. The tables below present (i) revenues by geographic region (based on where the sale is fulfilled) and (ii) revenues by segment for the years indicated (in thousands).

Primary Geographic MarketYear Ended December 31, 2021Year Ended December 31, 2020Increase (Decrease)Percentage Increase
(Decrease)
United States and Canada$3,048,902 $2,637,824 $411,078 16 %
Europe, Middle East and Africa1,130,979 966,273 164,706 17 
Other International 554,081 495,306 58,775 12 
Total revenues$4,733,962 $4,099,403 $634,559 15 %

SegmentYear Ended December 31, 2021Year Ended December 31, 2020Increase (Decrease)Percentage Increase
(Decrease)
Research$4,101,392 $3,602,892 $498,500 14 %
Conferences214,449 120,140 94,309 78 
Consulting418,121 376,371 41,750 11 
Total revenues$4,733,962 $4,099,403 $634,559 15 %

Refer to the section of this MD&A below entitled “Segment Results” for a discussion of revenues and results by segment.

Cost of services and product development was $1.4 billion in 2021, an increase of $99.1 million compared to 2020, or 7% on a reported basis and 6% excluding the foreign currency impact. The increase was primarily due to increased compensation costs, conference expenses and program expenses, partially offset by reduced travel and entertainment costs. Cost of services and product development as a percent of revenues was 31% and 33% during 2021 and 2020, respectively.

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Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expense was $2.2 billion in 2021, an increase of $116.7 million compared to 2020, or 6% on a reported basis and 4% excluding the foreign currency impact. The increase in SG&A during the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to the prior fiscal year, was primarily due to charges associated with the impairment of right-of-use assets and other long-lived assets, net of a reduction in lease liabilities, of $49.5 million related to certain office locations we no longer intend to use. Additionally, conference-related expenses increased due to expenses on cancelled conferences. SG&A expense also increased due to higher personnel costs in the current year, partially offset by reduced severance costs. There was a slight decrease in the number of quota-bearing sales associates in Global Technology Sales and an increase in Global Business Sales to 3,072 and 934, respectively, at December 31, 2021. On a combined basis, the total number of quota-bearing sales associates increased by 2% when compared to December 31, 2020. SG&A expense as a percent of revenues was 46% and 50% during 2021 and 2020, respectively.

Depreciation increased by 9% during 2021 compared to 2020. This increase was due to additional investments, including new leasehold improvements as additional office space went into service, and capitalized software.

Amortization of intangibles decreased by 12% during 2021 compared to 2020 due to certain intangible assets that became fully amortized in 2021 and 2020.

Operating income was $915.8 million and $490.2 million during 2021 and 2020, respectively. The increase in operating income was primarily due to increased revenue.

Interest expense, net increased by $3.1 million during 2021 compared to 2020. The increase in interest expense, net was primarily due to an increase in debt, partially offset by a reduction in the amortization of debt issuance costs.

Gain on event cancellation insurance claims of $152.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2021 reflected proceeds, net of expense recoveries, related to the 2020 conference cancellation insurance claims.

Loss on extinguishment of debt during the year ended December 31, 2020 was related to the early redemption premium and write-off of deferred financing fees on our redemption of the 2025 Notes on September 28, 2020.

Other income (expense), net for the years presented herein included the net impact of foreign currency gains and losses from our hedging activities, as well as sales of certain state tax credits and the recognition of other tax incentives. During 2021 and 2020, Other income (expense), net included a $20.2 million and a 2.2 million gain on de-designated interest rate swaps, respectively. Other income (expense), net for the year ended December 31, 2020 also included the release of $10.3 million from Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net related to forecasted interest payments that were no longer probable as a result of the payment under the then outstanding 2016 Credit Agreement term loan and revolving credit facility on June 30, 2020.

Provision for income taxes was $176.3 million and $59.4 million during 2021 and 2020, respectively, with an effective income tax rate of 18.2% for both 2021 and 2020. The Company completed intercompany sales of certain intellectual property in both 2021 and 2020. As a result, the Company recorded net tax benefits of approximately $54.1 million and $28.3 million during 2021 and 2020, respectively. These benefits represent the value of future tax deductions for amortization of the assets in the acquiring jurisdiction, net of any tax recognized in the selling jurisdiction. The Company’s intellectual property footprint continues to evolve and may result in tax rate volatility in the future. Note 12 — Income Taxes in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s income taxes.

Net income was $793.6 million and $266.7 million during 2021 and 2020, respectively. Additionally, our diluted net income per share increased by $6.25 in 2021 compared to 2020. These year-over-year changes reflect: (i) the increase in our 2021 operating income; (ii) the gain on event cancellation insurance claims; (iii) the prior year loss on extinguishment of debt; and (iv) higher Other income (expense), net, partially offset by increased income tax expense due to higher pre-tax income in 2021 compared to 2020.

SEGMENT RESULTS

We evaluate reportable segment performance and allocate resources based on gross contribution margin. Gross contribution is defined as operating income or loss excluding certain Cost of services and product development expenses, SG&A expenses, Depreciation, Amortization of intangibles, and Acquisition and integration charges. Gross contribution margin is defined as gross contribution as a percent of revenues.

Reportable Segments
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The sections below present the results of the Company’s three reportable business segments: Research, Conferences and Consulting.

Research
 As Of And For The Year Ended December 31, 2021As Of And For The Year Ended December 31, 2020Increase
(Decrease)
Percentage
Increase
(Decrease)
Financial Measurements:    
Revenues (1)$4,101,392 $3,602,892 $498,50014 %
Gross contribution (1)$3,036,925 $2,597,852 $439,07317 %
Gross contribution margin74 %72 % points— 
Business Measurements:    
Global Technology Sales (2):
Contract value (1), (3)$3,373,000 $2,957,000 $416,00014 %
Client retention 86 %83 % points— 
Wallet retention 106 %98 % points— 
Global Business Sales (2):
Contract value (1), (3) $874,000 $706,000 $168,00024 %
Client retention 87 %83 % points— 
Wallet retention115 %101 %14  points— 
(1)Dollars in thousands.
(2)Global Technology Sales includes sales to users and providers of technology. Global Business Sales includes sales to all other functional leaders.
(3)Contract values are on a foreign exchange neutral basis. Contract values as of December 31, 2020 have been calculated using the same foreign currency rates as 2021.

Research revenues increased by $498.5 million during 2021 compared to 2020, or 14% on a reported basis and 12% excluding the foreign currency impact. The gross contribution margin was 74% in 2021 compared to 72% in 2020. The increase in revenues during 2021 was primarily due to the same factors driving the trend in our Research contract value, which are discussed below. The improvement in margin was primarily due to the growth in revenue.

Total contract value increased to $4.2 billion at December 31, 2021, or 16% compared to December 31, 2020 on a foreign currency neutral basis. Total contract value growth was led by the manufacturing, services, and technology sectors. Global Technology Sales (“GTS”) contract value increased by 14% at December 31, 2021 when compared to December 31, 2020. The increase in GTS contract value was primarily due to new business from new and existing clients, as well as improved client retention. GTS contract value increased by double-digits for all enterprise sizes and over half of all sectors. Global Business Sales (“GBS”) contract value increased by 24% year-over-year, also primarily driven by new business from new and existing clients, and improved client retention. All of our GBS practices achieved double-digit growth rates, with the majority growing more than 20% year-over-year.

GTS client retention was 86% and 83% as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, while wallet retention was 106% and 98%, respectively. GBS client retention was 87% and 83% as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, while wallet retention was 115% and 101% as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The number of GTS client enterprises and GBS client enterprises increased by 9% and 5%, respectively, at December 31, 2021 when compared to December 31, 2020.

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Conferences
 As Of And For The Year Ended December 31, 2021As Of And For The Year Ended December 31, 2020Increase
(Decrease)
Percentage
Increase
(Decrease)
Financial Measurements:   
Revenues (1)$214,449 $120,140 $94,30978 %
Gross contribution (1)$133,748 $57,302 $76,446133 %
Gross contribution margin62 %48 %14  points— 
Business Measurements:    
Number of destination conferences (2)39201995 %
Number of destination conferences attendees (2) 57,14542,27314,87235 %
(1)Dollars in thousands.
(2)Includes both virtual and in-person conferences. Single day, local meetings are excluded.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we cancelled all in-person conferences from March 2020 through December 2021, and pivoted to producing virtual conferences with a focus on maximizing the value we deliver to our clients. We held 39 virtual conferences during the year ended December 31, 2021. During 2020, we successfully held 5 in-person conferences prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and 15 virtual conferences during the second half of the year. We expect to continue to deliver conferences virtually during 2022, but are operationally planning to re-launch in-person destination conferences when conditions permit. Conferences revenues increased by $94.3 million during 2021 compared to 2020, or 78%, on both a reported basis and excluding the foreign currency impact. The increase in revenues for the year ended December 31, 2021 was due to the virtual conferences held during the period, as well as the use of ticket entitlements which we extended from 2020 due to the pandemic. The segment gross contribution margin was 62% and 48% in 2021 and 2020, respectively. The higher gross contribution margin during 2021 was primarily due to increased revenues.

Consulting
 As Of And For The Year Ended December 31, 2021As Of And For The Year Ended December 31, 2020Increase
(Decrease)
Percentage
Increase
(Decrease)
Financial Measurements:    
Revenues (1)$418,121 $376,371 $41,75011 %
Gross contribution (1)$158,843 $115,744 $43,09937 %
Gross contribution margin38 %31 % points— 
Business Measurements:    
Backlog (1), (2)$116,700 $103,300 $13,40013 %
Average billable headcount749768(19)(2)%
Consultant utilization68 %61 %points— 
Average annualized revenue per billable headcount (1)$429 $368 $6117 %
(1)Dollars in thousands.
(2)Backlog is on a foreign currency neutral basis. Backlog as of December 31, 2020 has been calculated using the same foreign currency rates as 2021.

Consulting revenues increased 11% during 2021 compared to 2020 on a reported basis and 9% excluding the foreign currency impact. The increase in revenues on a reported basis was due to a 13% increase in labor-based consulting, and a 4% increase in contract optimization. Contract optimization revenue may vary significantly and, as such, 2021 revenues may not be indicative of future results. The segment gross contribution margin was 38% and 31% in 2021 and 2020, respectively. The increase in gross contribution margin during 2021 was primarily due to the increase in revenue.

Backlog increased by $13.4 million, or 13%, from December 31, 2020 to December 31, 2021.
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LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

We finance our operations through cash generated from our operating activities and borrowings. Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s outstanding debt obligations. At December 31, 2021, we had $756.5 million of cash and cash equivalents and approximately $1.0 billion of available borrowing capacity on the revolving credit facility under our 2020 Credit Agreement. We believe that the Company has adequate liquidity and access to capital markets to meet its currently anticipated needs for both the next twelve months and the foreseeable future.

We have historically generated significant cash flows from our operating activities. Our operating cash flow has been continuously maintained by the leverage characteristics of our subscription-based business model in our Research segment, which is our largest business segment and historically has constituted a significant portion of our total revenues. The majority of our Research customer contracts are paid in advance and, combined with a strong customer retention rate and high incremental margins, has resulted in continuously strong operating cash flow. Cash flow generation has also benefited from our ongoing efforts to improve the operating efficiencies of our businesses as well as a focus on the optimal management of our working capital as we increase sales.

Our cash and cash equivalents are held in numerous locations throughout the world with 31% held overseas at December 31, 2021. The Company intends to reinvest substantially all of its accumulated undistributed foreign earnings, except in instances where repatriation would result in minimal additional tax. As a result of the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, we believe that the income tax impact if such earnings were repatriated would be minimal.

The table below summarizes the changes in the Company’s cash balances for the years indicated (in thousands).
 Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
 20212020
Cash provided by operating activities$1,312,470 $903,278 $409,192 
Cash used in investing activities(80,467)(83,888)3,421 
Cash used in financing activities(1,157,609)(416,224)(741,385)
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash74,394 403,166 (328,772)
Effects of exchange rates (26,375)28,581 (54,956)
Beginning cash and cash equivalents712,583 280,836 431,747 
Ending cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash$760,602 $712,583 $48,019 

Operating

Cash provided by operating activities was $1,312.5 million and $903.3 million in 2021 and 2020, respectively. The year-over-year increase was primarily due to higher pre-tax income in the 2021 period, in part due to a $152.3 million gain on event cancellation insurance claims, and an increase in deferred revenues resulting from increased bookings in Research, partially offset by higher income tax payments and deferred commissions.

Investing

Cash used in investing activities was $80.5 million and $83.9 million in 2021 and 2020, respectively. The cash used in 2021 was for capital expenditures and the acquisition of Pulse Q&A Inc. The slight decrease from 2020 to 2021 was the result of reduced capital spending in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, partially offset by the 2021 acquisition of Pulse Q&A Inc.

Financing

Cash used in financing activities was $1.2 billion and $416.2 million in 2021 and 2020, respectively. During the 2021 period, we issued $600.0 million of 3.625% Senior Notes due 2029, and repaid $100.0 million on our term loan facility under the 2020 Credit Agreement with a portion of the proceeds from the issuance of the 2029 Notes. During 2021, we used $1.7 billion of cash for share repurchases. During 2020, the Company repaid a net $148.0 million on our revolving credit facility under the 2016 Credit Agreement, paid a net $58.5 million in debt principal repayments, borrowed $5.0 million under the 2020 Credit Agreement and used $176.3 million for share repurchases. Additionally, we paid $25.8 million in deferred financing fees related to our financing activities and $30.8 million in early redemption premium payments related to the repayment of our
29


2025 Notes. See Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s financing activities in 2021 and 2020.

OBLIGATIONS AND COMMITMENTS

Debt

As of December 31, 2021, the Company had $2.5 billion of principal amount of debt outstanding. Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s outstanding debt obligations.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

Through December 31, 2021, the Company has not entered into any material off-balance sheet arrangements or transactions with unconsolidated entities or other persons.

Contractual Cash Commitments

The table below summarizes the Company’s future contractual cash commitments as of December 31, 2021 (in thousands).

Commitment DescriptionDue In Less Than
1 Year
Due In 2-3
Years
Due In 4-5
Years
Due In More Than
5 Years
Total
Debt – principal, interest, and commitment fees (1)$124,651 $247,417 $461,956 $2,450,696 $3,284,720 
Operating leases (2)146,114 272,298 228,855 417,750 1,065,017 
Deferred compensation arrangements (3)9,298 14,118 10,653 76,792 110,861 
Other (4)38,542 56,342 37,896 31,272 164,052 
Totals$318,605 $590,175 $739,360 $2,976,510 $4,624,650 
 
(1)Principal repayments of the Company’s debt obligations were classified in the above table based on the contractual repayment dates. Interest payments were based on the effective interest rates as of December 31, 2021, including the effects of the Company’s interest rate swap contracts. Commitment fees were based on unused balances and commitment rates as of December 31, 2021. Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides information regarding the Company’s debt obligations and interest rate swap contracts.
(2)The Company leases various facilities, automobiles, computer equipment and other assets under non-cancelable operating lease agreements expiring between 2022 and 2038. The total commitment excludes approximately $292.7 million of estimated future cash receipts from the Company’s subleasing arrangements. Note 1 — Business and Significant Accounting Policies and Note 7 — Leases in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provide additional information regarding the Company’s leases.
(3)The Company has supplemental deferred compensation arrangements with certain of its employees. Amounts payable with known payment dates have been classified in the above table based on those scheduled payment dates. Amounts payable whose payment dates are unknown have been included in the Due In More Than 5 Years category because the Company cannot determine when the amounts will be paid. Note 15 — Employee Benefits in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s supplemental deferred compensation arrangements.
(4)Other includes: (i) contractual commitments (a) for software, telecom and other services and (b) to secure sites for our Conferences business (c) deferred consideration held in escrow in connection with business acquisitions (see Note 1 — Business and Significant Accounting Policies and Note 2 — Acquisitions in in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements); and (ii) projected cash contributions to the Company’s defined benefit pension plans. Note 15 — Employee Benefits in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s defined benefit pension plans.

In addition to the contractual cash commitments included in the above table, the Company has other payables and liabilities that may be legally enforceable but are not considered contractual commitments. Information regarding the Company’s payables and liabilities is included in Note 5 — Accounts Payable and Accrued and Other Liabilities in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

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RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

The FASB has issued accounting standards that had not yet become effective as of December 31, 2021 and may impact the Company’s consolidated financial statements or its disclosures in future periods. Note 1 — Business and Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides information regarding those accounting standards.

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.

INTEREST RATE RISK
 
As of December 31, 2021, the Company had $2.5 billion in total debt principal outstanding. Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s outstanding debt obligations.

Approximately $0.3 billion of the Company’s total debt outstanding as of December 31, 2021 was based on a floating base rate of interest, which potentially exposes the Company to increases in interest rates. However, we reduce our overall exposure to interest rate increases through our interest rate swap contracts, which effectively convert the floating base interest rates on all of our variable rate borrowings to fixed rates.

FOREIGN CURRENCY RISK
 
A significant portion of our revenues are typically derived from sales outside of the United States. Among the major foreign currencies in which we conduct business are the Euro, the British Pound, the Japanese Yen, the Australian dollar and the Canadian dollar. The reporting currency of our Consolidated Financial Statements is the U.S. dollar. As the values of the foreign currencies in which we operate fluctuate over time relative to the U.S. dollar, the Company is exposed to both foreign currency translation and transaction risk.

Translation risk arises as our foreign currency assets and liabilities are translated into U.S. dollars because the functional currencies of our foreign operations are generally denominated in the local currency. Adjustments resulting from the translation of these assets and liabilities are deferred and recorded as a component of stockholders’ equity. A measure of the potential impact of foreign currency translation can be determined through a sensitivity analysis of our cash and cash equivalents. At December 31, 2021, we had $756.5 million of cash and cash equivalents, with a substantial portion denominated in foreign currencies. If the exchange rates of the foreign currencies we hold all changed in comparison to the U.S. dollar by 10%, the amount of cash and cash equivalents we would have reported on December 31, 2021 could have increased or decreased by approximately $45.0 million. The translation of our foreign currency revenues and expenses historically has not had a material impact on our consolidated earnings because movements in and among the major currencies in which we operate tend to impact our revenues and expenses fairly equally. However, our earnings could be impacted during periods of significant exchange rate volatility, or when some or all of the major currencies in which we operate move in the same direction against the U.S. dollar.
 
Transaction risk arises when we enter into a transaction that is denominated in a currency that may differ from the local functional currency. As these transactions are translated into the local functional currency, a gain or loss may result, which is recorded in current period earnings. We typically enter into foreign currency forward exchange contracts to mitigate the effects of some of this foreign currency transaction risk. Our outstanding foreign currency forward exchange contracts as of December 31, 2021 had an immaterial net unrealized loss.

CREDIT RISK
 
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of short-term, highly liquid investments classified as cash equivalents, fees receivable, interest rate swap contracts and foreign currency forward exchange contracts. The majority of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents, interest rate swap contracts and foreign currency forward exchange contracts are with large investment grade commercial banks. Fees receivable balances deemed to be collectible from customers have limited concentration of credit risk due to our diverse customer base and geographic dispersion.

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.
 
Our financial statements for 2021, 2020 and 2019, together with the reports of KPMG LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm, are included herein in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
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ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE.

None.

ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES.

DISCLOSURE CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

Management conducted an evaluation, as of December 31, 2021, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)), under the supervision and with the participation of our chief executive officer and chief financial officer. Based upon that evaluation, our chief executive officer and chief financial officer have concluded that the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures are effective in alerting them in a timely manner to material Company information required to be disclosed by us in reports filed under the Exchange Act.

MANAGEMENT’S ANNUAL REPORT ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING

Gartner management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f). Gartner’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. In addition, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions and that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. Management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021. In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth in the Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Management’s assessment was reviewed with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.

Based on its assessment of internal control over financial reporting, management has concluded that, as of December 31, 2021, Gartner’s internal control over financial reporting was effective. The effectiveness of management’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021 has been audited by KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in Part IV, Item 15.

CHANGES IN INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING

There have been no changes in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended December 31, 2021 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION.

Not applicable.

ITEM 9C. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

None.
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PART III

ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the captions “The Board of Directors,” “Proposal One: Election of Directors,” “Executive Officers,” “Corporate Governance,” “Delinquent Section 16(a) Reports” (if necessary) and “Proxy and Voting Information — Available Information” in the Company’s 2022 Proxy Statement. See also Item 1. Business — Available Information.

ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the captions “Compensation Discussion & Analysis,” “Compensation Tables and Narrative Disclosures,” “The Board of Directors - Compensation of Directors,” “The Board of Directors - Director Compensation Table,” “Corporate Governance - Risk Oversight - Risk Assessment of Compensation Policies and Practices,” and “Corporate Governance - Compensation Committee” in the Company’s 2022 Proxy Statement.

ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the captions “Compensation Tables and Narrative Disclosures — Equity Compensation Plan Information” and “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” in the Company’s 2022 Proxy Statement.

ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the captions “Transactions With Related Persons” and “Corporate Governance — Director Independence” in the Company’s 2022 Proxy Statement.

ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the caption “Proposal Three: Ratification of Appointment of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm” in the Company’s 2022 Proxy Statement.

33


PART IV
 
ITEM 15. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES.
 
(a) 1. and 2. Financial Statements and Schedules
 
The reports of our independent registered public accounting firm and financial statements listed in the Index to Consolidated Financial Statements herein are filed as part of this report.
 
All financial statement schedules not listed in the Index have been omitted because the information required is not applicable or is shown in the consolidated financial statements or notes thereto.
 
3. Exhibits
EXHIBIT NUMBERDESCRIPTION OF DOCUMENT
Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company.
By-laws of Gartner, Inc. (as amended through April 29, 2021).
Indenture (including form of Notes), dated as of June 22, 2020, among Gartner, Inc., the guarantors named therein and U.S. Bank National Association, as a trustee, relating to the $800,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 4.500% Senior Notes due 2028.
Indenture (including form of Notes), dated as of September 28, 2020, among Gartner, Inc., the guarantors named therein and U.S. Bank National Association, as a trustee, relating to the $800,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 3.750% Senior Notes due 2030.
Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of September 28, 2020, among Gartner, Inc., the Lenders party thereto and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent.
Amended and Restated Guarantee and Collateral Agreement, dated as of September 28, 2020, among Gartner, Inc. each subsidiary guarantor party thereto and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.
Indenture (including form of Notes), dated as of June 18, 2021, among Gartner, Inc., the guarantors named therein and U.S. Bank National Association, as a trustee, relating to the $600,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 3.625% Senior Notes due 2029.
Description of Gartner, Inc.’s Common Stock.
2011 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as amended and restated, as of September 1, 2021.
Long-Term Incentive Plan, as amended and restated effective January 31, 2019.
Second Amended and Restated Employment Agreement between Eugene A. Hall and the Company dated as of February 14, 2019.
Amendment to Employment Agreement between Eugene A. Hall and the Company dated as of April 29, 2021.
Company Deferred Compensation Plan, effective January 1, 2009.
Form of 2019 Stock Appreciation Right Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2019 Performance Stock Unit Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2020 Stock Appreciation Right Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2020 Performance Stock Unit Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2021 Stock Appreciation Right Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2021 Performance Stock Unit Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2022 Stock Appreciation Right Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2022 Performance Stock Unit Agreement for executive officers.
Form of Restricted Stock Unit Agreement for non-employee directors.
Enhanced Executive Rewards Policy.
34


Subsidiaries of Registrant.
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.
Power of Attorney (see Signature Page).
Certification of chief executive officer under Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Certification of chief financial officer under Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Certification under Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
101.INS*XBRL Instance Document - the instance document does not appear in the Interactive Data File because its XBRL tags are embedded within the Inline XBRL document.
101.SCH*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document.
101.CAL*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document.
101.LAB*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document.
101.PRE*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document.
101.DEF*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document.
104*Cover Page Interactive Data File, formatted in Inline XBRL (included as Exhibit 101).
 
*Filed with this document.
+Management compensation plan or arrangement.
(1)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 6, 2005.
(2)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on May 5, 2021.
(3)
Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 23, 2020.
(4)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on September 28, 2020.
(5)
Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 21, 2021.
(6)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Proxy Statement (Schedule 14A) filed on April 19, 2021.
(7)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 22, 2019.
(8)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 20, 2009.
(9)
Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 19, 2020.
(10)
Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 24, 2021.
(11)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed on August 1, 2018.

35


INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (KPMG LLP, New York, NY, Auditor Firm ID: 185)
 
All financial statement schedules have been omitted because the information required is not applicable or is shown in the Consolidated Financial Statements or notes thereto.

36


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
Gartner, Inc.:

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Gartner, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, and our report dated February 23, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Unrecognized tax benefits

As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position when it believes such position is more likely than not of being sustained if challenged. As of December 31, 2021, the Company has recorded gross unrecognized tax benefits of $150.0 million. Recognized tax positions are measured at the largest amount of benefit with greater than a 50 percent likelihood of being realized. The Company uses estimates and assumptions in determining the amount of unrecognized tax benefits.

We identified the assessment of unrecognized tax benefits related to transfer pricing as a critical audit matter. Complex auditor judgment was required in evaluating the Company’s interpretation of tax law and its estimate of the ultimate resolution of its tax positions.

37


The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls over the Company’s unrecognized tax benefits process, including transfer pricing. We involved tax and transfer pricing professionals with specialized skills and knowledge, who assisted in assessing unrecognized tax benefits by:

evaluating the Company’s interpretation of tax laws and income tax consequences of intercompany transactions

assessing transfer pricing practices for compliance with relevant tax laws and regulations

analyzing the Company’s tax positions and determination of unrecognized tax benefits, including the associated effect in other jurisdictions

In addition, we evaluated the Company’s ability to estimate its unrecognized tax benefits by comparing historical unrecognized tax benefits to actual results upon conclusion of examinations by applicable taxing authorities.

/s/ KPMG LLP
 
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1996.

New York, New York
February 23, 2022

38


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
Gartner, Inc.:
Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

We have audited Gartner, Inc. and subsidiaries’ (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements), and our report dated February 23, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.

Basis for Opinion

The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ KPMG LLP
 
New York, New York
February 23, 2022
39


GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA)
 
 December 31,
 20212020
ASSETS  
Current assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$756,493 $712,583 
Fees receivable, net of allowances of $6,500 and $10,000, respectively
1,365,180 1,241,508 
Deferred commissions380,569 259,755 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets117,838 109,212 
Total current assets2,620,080 2,323,058 
Property, equipment and leasehold improvements, net273,562 336,765 
Operating lease right-of-use assets548,258 647,283 
Goodwill2,951,317 2,945,547 
Intangible assets, net714,418 806,998 
Other assets308,689 256,316 
Total Assets$7,416,324 $7,315,967 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY  
Current liabilities:  
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities$1,134,814 $952,431 
Deferred revenues2,238,035 1,974,548 
Current portion of long-term debt5,931 20,515 
Total current liabilities3,378,780 2,947,494 
Long-term debt, net of deferred financing fees2,456,833 1,958,286 
Operating lease liabilities697,766 780,166 
Other liabilities511,887 539,593 
Total Liabilities7,045,266 6,225,539 
Stockholders’ Equity:  
Preferred stock:  
$0.01 par value, authorized 5,000,000 shares; none issued or outstanding
  
Common stock:  
$0.0005 par value, 250,000,000 shares authorized; 163,602,067 shares issued for both periods
82 82 
Additional paid-in capital2,074,896 1,968,930 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net(81,431)(99,228)
Accumulated earnings3,049,027 2,255,467 
Treasury stock, at cost, 81,205,504 and 74,759,985 common shares, respectively
(4,671,516)(3,034,823)
Total Stockholders’ Equity 371,058 1,090,428 
Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity $7,416,324 $7,315,967 
 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

40


GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE DATA)
 Year Ended December 31,
 202120202019
Revenues:   
Research$4,101,392 $3,602,892 $3,374,548 
Conferences214,449 120,140 476,869 
Consulting418,121 376,371 393,904 
Total revenues4,733,962 4,099,403 4,245,321 
Costs and expenses:   
Cost of services and product development1,444,093 1,345,024 1,550,568 
Selling, general and administrative2,155,658 2,038,963 2,103,424 
Depreciation102,802 93,925 82,066 
Amortization of intangibles109,603 125,059 129,713 
Acquisition and integration charges6,055 6,282 9,463 
Total costs and expenses3,818,211 3,609,253 3,875,234 
Operating income915,751 490,150 370,087 
Interest income1,893 2,087 3,026 
Interest expense(118,513)(115,636)(102,831)
Gain on event cancellation insurance claims 152,310   
Loss from divested operations  (2,075)
Loss on extinguishment of debt (44,814) 
Other income (expense), net18,429 (5,654)7,532 
Income before income taxes969,870 326,133 275,739 
Provision for income taxes176,310 59,388 42,449 
Net income$793,560 $266,745 $233,290 
Net income per share:   
Basic$9.33 $2.99 $2.60 
Diluted$9.21 $2.96 $2.56 
Weighted average shares outstanding:   
Basic85,026 89,315 89,817 
Diluted86,177 90,017 90,971 
 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

41


GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(IN THOUSANDS)
 Year Ended December 31,
 202120202019
Net income$793,560 $266,745 $233,290 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:   
Foreign currency translation adjustments(6,621)10,375 4,169 
Interest rate swaps - net change in deferred gain or loss21,781 (30,940)(39,394)
Pension plans - net change in deferred actuarial gain or loss2,637 (725)(2,846)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax17,797 (21,290)(38,071)
Comprehensive income$811,357 $245,455 $195,219 
 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

42


GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(IN THOUSANDS)
 
 Common
Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss, Net
Accumulated
Earnings
Treasury
Stock
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
Balance at December 31, 2018$82 $1,823,710 $(39,867)$1,755,432 $(2,688,600)$850,757 
Net income— — —