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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K  
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
 OR  
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 Commission file number: 1-14443
GARTNER, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)  
Delaware04-3099750
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
P.O. Box 10212
56 Top Gallant Road
Stamford,
Connecticut06902-7700
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (203) 964-0096
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange
on which registered
Common Stock, $0.0005 par value per shareITNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No
As of June 30, 2022, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $18.6 billion, based on the closing price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
As of February 3, 2023, there were 79,060,595 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on June 1, 2023 (the 2023 Proxy Statement) is incorporated by reference into Part III to the extent described therein.



































GARTNER, INC.
2022 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS

  
   
  
   
  
   
  

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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS.

GENERAL

Gartner, Inc. (NYSE: IT) delivers actionable, objective insight to executives and their teams. Our expert guidance and tools enable faster, smarter decisions and stronger performance on an organization’s mission critical priorities.

We are a trusted advisor and an objective resource for more than 15,000 enterprises in approximately 90 countries and territories— across all major functions, in every industry and enterprise size.

Gartner delivers its products and services globally through three business segments – Research, Conferences and Consulting, as described below.

Research equips executives and their teams from every function and across all industries with actionable, objective insight, guidance and tools. Our experienced experts deliver all this value informed by a combination of practitioner-sourced and data-driven research to help our clients address their mission critical priorities.

Conferences provides executives and teams across an organization the opportunity to learn, share and network. From our Gartner Symposium/Xpo series, to industry-leading conferences focused on specific business roles and topics, to peer-driven sessions, our offerings enable attendees to experience the best of Gartner insight and guidance.

Consulting serves senior executives leading technology-driven strategic initiatives leveraging the power of Gartner’s actionable, objective insight. Through custom analysis and on-the-ground support we enable optimized technology investments and stronger performance on our clients’ mission critical priorities.

The fiscal year of Gartner is the twelve-month period from January 1 through December 31. All references to 2022, 2021 and 2020 herein refer to the fiscal year unless otherwise indicated. When used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the terms “Gartner,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to Gartner, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

MARKET OVERVIEW
Enterprise leaders face enormous pressure to stay ahead and grow profitably amidst constant changes. Whether it is a digital transformation, a global health crisis, large-scale regulatory changes, or other unique challenges, business leaders today are facing significant disruptive changes. We believe that enterprises cannot be operationally effective unless they incorporate the right strategy, management and technology decisions into every part of their business. This requirement affects all business levels, functions and roles. Executives and their teams turn to Gartner for decision-making and execution guidance to achieve their mission critical priorities.

OUR SOLUTION
We believe our combination of expert-led, practitioner-sourced and data-driven research steers clients toward the right decisions and actions on the issues that matter most. Organizations are overrun with data and information. Gartner helps eliminate this information chaos and provides clarity with actionable, objective insight. We employ a diversified business model that utilizes and leverages the breadth and depth of our differentiated intellectual capital. The foundation of our business model is our ability to create and distribute our proprietary research content as broadly as possible via published reports, interactive tools, facilitated peer networking, briefings and direct communications with executives and their teams; our conferences, including the Gartner Symposium/Xpo series; and consulting and advisory services.

PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

Our diversified business model provides multiple entry points and sources of value for our clients that lead to increased client spending on our research and advisory services, conferences and consulting services. A critical part of our long-term strategy is to increase business volume and penetration with our most valuable clients, identifying relationships with the greatest sales potential and expanding those relationships by offering strategically relevant research and insight. We also seek to extend the Gartner brand name to develop new client relationships, augment our sales capacity and expand into new markets around the world. These initiatives have created additional revenue streams through more effective packaging, campaigning and cross-selling of our products and services. In addition, we seek to increase our revenue and operating cash flow through more effective pricing of our products and services.
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Our principal products and services are delivered through our three business segments, as described below.

RESEARCH. Gartner delivers independent, objective advice to leaders across an enterprise through subscription services that include on-demand access to published research content, data and benchmarks, and direct access to a network of approximately 2,500 research experts located around the globe. Gartner research is the fundamental building block for all Gartner products and services. We combine our proprietary research methodologies with extensive industry and academic relationships to create Gartner products and services that address each role across an enterprise. Within the Research segment, Global Technology Sales (“GTS”) sells products and services to users and providers of technology, while Global Business Sales (“GBS”) sells products and services to all other functional leaders, such as human resources, supply chain, finance, and marketing.

Our research agenda is defined by clients’ needs, focusing on the critical issues, opportunities and challenges they face every day. We are in steady contact with more than 15,000 distinct client enterprises worldwide. We publish tens of thousands of pages of original research annually, and our research experts had more than 460,000 direct client interactions in 2022. Our size and scale enable us to commit vast resources toward broader and deeper research coverage and to deliver insight to our clients based on what they need and where they are. The ongoing interaction of our research experts with our clients enables us to identify the most pertinent topics to them and develop relevant product and service enhancements to meet the evolving needs of users of our research. Our proprietary research content, presented in the form of reports, briefings, updates and related tools, is delivered directly to the client’s computer or mobile device via our website and/or product-specific portals.

Clients normally sign subscription contracts that provide access to our research content and advisory services for individual users over a defined period. We typically have a minimum contract period of twelve months for our research and advisory subscription contracts and, at December 31, 2022, over 70% of our contracts were multi-year.

CONFERENCES. Gartner conferences are designed for information technology (IT”) and business executives as well as decision makers looking to adapt and evolve their organizations through disruption and uncertainty, navigate risks and prioritize investments. Attendees experience sessions led by Gartner research experts, and the sessions include cutting-edge technology solutions, peer exchange workshops, one-on-one analyst and advisor meetings, consulting diagnostic workshops, keynotes and more. Our conferences also provide attendees with an opportunity to interact with IT and business executives from the world’s leading companies. In addition to role-specific summits and workshop-style seminars, Gartner hosts the Gartner Symposium/Xpo series, including its unique, flagship IT Symposium/Xpo®, which is held at several locations worldwide annually. During 2022, Gartner successfully held 25 in-person and 16 virtual conferences with more than 60,000 attendees, including eight Symposiums/Xpos. In addition, during 2022 we hosted 350+ peer networking meetings, and through the Evanta brand we hosted 350+ exclusive C-level meetings with close to 200 in-person.

CONSULTING. Through its experienced consultants, Gartner Consulting serves chief information officers and other senior executives who are driving technology-related strategic initiatives to optimize technology investments and drive business impact. Gartner Consulting combines the power of Gartner’s market-leading research with custom analysis and on-the-ground support to help clients to turn insight and advice into action and impact.

Consulting solutions capitalize on Gartner assets that are invaluable to IT decision-making, including: (1) our extensive research, which ensures that our consulting analyses and advice are based on a deep understanding of the IT environment and the business of IT; (2) our market independence, which keeps our consultants focused on our clients’ success; and (3) our market-leading benchmarking capabilities, which provide relevant comparisons and best practices to assess and improve performance. Additionally, we provide actionable solutions for a range of IT-related priorities, including IT cost optimization, digital transformation and IT sourcing optimization.

COMPETITION

We believe that the principal factors that differentiate us from our competitors are as follows:

Superior research content - We believe that we create the broadest, highest-quality and most relevant research coverage across all major functional roles in an enterprise. Our independent operating model and research analysis generates unbiased insight that we believe is timely, thought-provoking and comprehensive, and that is known for its high quality, independence and objectivity.

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Our leading brand name - We have provided critical, trusted insight under the Gartner name for more than 40 years.

Our global footprint and established customer base - We have a global presence with clients in approximately 90 countries and territories on six continents. A substantial portion of our revenue is derived from sales outside of the United States.

Insight that creates connections - Our global community of experts, analysts and peers help provide the deep relationships that help clients stay ahead of the curve.

Experienced management team - Our management team is comprised of research veterans and experienced industry executives with long tenure at Gartner.

Substantial operating leverage in our business model - We can distribute our intellectual property and expertise across multiple platforms, including research and advisory subscription and membership programs, conferences and consulting engagements, to derive incremental revenue and profitability.

Vast network of research experts and consultants - As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately 2,500 research experts and 880 experienced consultants located around the world. Our research experts are located in more than 30 countries and territories, enabling us to cover vast aspects of business and technology on a global basis.

Notwithstanding these differentiating factors, we face competition from a significant number of independent providers of information products and services. We compete indirectly with consulting firms and other data and information providers, including electronic and print media companies. These indirect competitors could choose to compete directly with us in the future. In addition, we face competition from free sources of information that are available to our clients through the internet. Limited barriers to entry exist in the markets in which we do business. As a result, new competitors may emerge and existing competitors may start to provide additional or complementary services. While we believe the breadth and depth of our research positions us well versus our competition, increased competition could result in loss of market share, diminished value in our products and services, reduced pricing, and increased sales and marketing expenditures.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

Our success has resulted in part from proprietary methodologies, software, reusable knowledge capital and other intellectual property rights. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret, confidentiality, non-compete and other contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property rights. We have policies related to confidentiality, ownership, and the use and protection of Gartner’s intellectual property. We also enter into agreements with our employees and third parties as appropriate that protect our intellectual property, and we enforce these agreements if necessary. We recognize the value of our intellectual property in the marketplace and vigorously identify, create and protect it. Additionally, we actively monitor and enforce contract compliance by our end users.

HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT

We believe our people are our most valuable asset, enabling our long track record of global growth. From attracting diverse talent through our recruitment process, to cultivating that talent with learning and development opportunities and rewards for strong performers, to supporting overall wellness with meaningful benefits and engagement, we strive to put our people first. At December 31, 2022, we had approximately 19,500 employees globally, approximately 9,110 of which were outside of the U.S., and the overwhelming majority of our employees were full time.

Gartner is committed to providing equal employment opportunities to all applicants and employees without regard to any legally protected status. This commitment is formalized in our global and U.S. equal employment opportunity policies. We continually renew this commitment by seeking to optimize our recruitment and professional development processes, create networking and educational opportunities, celebrate heritage and history, celebrate community service, and create safe spaces for all employees. Our human capital management strategies are developed by executive management and overseen by the Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion

Gartner is committed to creating a culture of inclusion - which is critical to the objectivity and independence we provide our clients. We celebrate diversity of thought and we welcome and encourage diverse perspectives. We embed Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (“DEI”) concepts into our culture and our critical people processes. Our DEI efforts are all about building the confidence and conviction in all of our associates – but particularly in our leaders - to do the right things and building a
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language of inclusion to foster this. Our DEI Executive Council, composed of our CEO, Chief Human Resources Officer, CFO, General Counsel, head of DEI, and other selected leaders, drives diversity, equity and inclusion as an imperative at all levels of the organization. In addition, the DEI Center of Excellence operationalizes strategy and establishes goals against key metrics to drive greater transparency and accountability. Our teams of employees are composed of individuals from different geographies, cultures, religions, ethnicities, races, genders, sexual orientations, abilities and generations working together to solve problems. Currently, 33% of our Board of Directors and 23% of our executive management team identifies as female, and 25% of our Board of Directors identifies as racially or ethnically diverse. As of December 31, 2022, approximately 47% of our employees worldwide identified as female and 24% of employees in the U.S. identified as racially or ethnically diverse. On a worldwide basis, our employees were represented by more than 85 self-identified nationalities working in 38 different countries and territories.

We emphasize the importance of inclusion to leaders and managers and the value of fostering a sense of belonging within their teams. We also continue to invest in learning opportunities to develop DEI at Gartner. For example, in addition to our popular Embracing Diversity & Being Inclusive training module, which covers the importance of diversity and inclusion at Gartner and the role of unconscious bias, we added a new module this year called Equity vs. Equality, which focuses on fostering a more equitable workplace.

The Company supports a number of employee-driven Employee Resource Groups (“ERGs”) that bring employees together to foster a diverse, inclusive and supportive workplace. Gartner currently has six formal ERGs supporting underrepresented racial, ethnic and multicultural backgrounds, women, the LGBTQ+ community, veterans and employees with disabilities. Participation in ERGs is voluntary and open to all employees. In 2022, over 5,300 Gartner associates were members of at least one ERG.

Health, Safety and Compensation

We seek to invest in meaningful, innovative and inclusive compensation and benefit programs that support physical, financial and emotional well-being of our employees. In addition to salaries, these programs (which vary by country/region) include annual bonuses, stock awards, an employee stock purchase plan, 401(k) matching, healthcare and insurance benefits, tax savings programs, such as health and dependent care flexible spending accounts, health savings account and pretax commuter benefits, generous paid time off, paid parental leave, life and disability insurance, business travel accident insurance, charity matching, employee assistance programs, tuition assistance and on-site services, such as health centers and fitness centers, among others. We believe that our equity grants facilitate retention as well as encourage performance of key personnel.

We operate under a hybrid virtual-first working arrangement, which provides additional flexibility to employees, enabling most of our employees to work remotely a substantial portion of the time. We also provide a number of free mental and behavioral health resources, including access to the Employee Assistance Program for employees and their dependents.

Talent Development, Retention and Training

Gartner aims to foster a culture of lifelong learning, getting feedback and evolving. In addition to helping employees unlock their full potential through mechanisms like continuous feedback and performance appraisals, we have dedicated programs designed to develop effective leaders. We also offer rotational programs and an online learning experience platform for employees called GartnerYou. In 2022, GartnerYou offered more than 46,000 learning resources, with over 400,000 completions globally. Since our Sales and Research & Advisory teams make up approximately 50% of total employees worldwide, we also have formal, dedicated programs to help train and onboard new hires as well as more experienced managers and leaders within Sales and Research & Advisory. In 2021, Gartner transformed how we onboard new sales hires so they more quickly develop the core competencies tied to sales success. Rooted in learning and development best practices, the reimagined program operates in a scalable model that provides new sales hires in their first year with access to as many as 2,100 well-paced, just-in-time learning assets. In 2022, we expanded the program, and more than 3,100 sales associates participated. Through these programs, we believe our teams develop role-specific knowledge and skills, increase productivity and improve performance.

We also strive to develop an inclusive and engaging environment that makes Gartner a vibrant, exciting place to work. We believe the greatest catalyst to engagement comes from leadership — particularly their efforts to set direction, allocate resources, and build individual and organizational capability. We embed our associate survey efforts within our business units so that the insight we glean can help leaders understand the opportunities for effecting organizational growth. Business-unit-specific survey results are used for a number of leader-specific interventions, from individualized coaching to team-based skill-building to business-unit-wide initiatives targeting key areas of engagement. While we experienced a decrease in associate turnover in 2022, our average employee tenure decreased from 5.1 years in 2021 to 4.5 years in 2022, primarily due to increased new hires in 2022.
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Our Communities and the Environment

Our associates have a long history of individual and team volunteering. Gartner facilitates a charity match program. In 2022, over 19% of associates made matched donations to more than 3,600 nonprofits, amounting to over $7.1 million donated by Gartner and its associates. In 2022, Gartner associates also logged approximately 24,300 hours supporting over 580 nonprofit organizations around the world. Finally, in 2022, we announced our commitment to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2035 in accordance with Science Based Target initiative’s (SBTi) Net-Zero Standard.

We encourage you to review our Corporate Responsibility Report located on our website at gartner.com, under the “Corporate Responsibilities” link in the “About” tab for more detailed information regarding our Human Capital programs and initiatives. Nothing on our website, including our Corporate Responsibility Report or sections thereof, shall be deemed incorporated by reference into this Annual Report, or any other filing we make with the SEC.

GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS

Our U.S. government contracts are subject to the approval of appropriations by the U.S. Congress to fund the agencies contracting for our products and services. Additionally, our contracts at the state and local levels, as well as foreign government contracts, are subject to various governmental authorizations and funding approvals and mechanisms. Certain of these contracts may be terminated at any time by the government entity without cause or penalty.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

Our internet address is gartner.com and the Investor Relations section of our website is at investor.gartner.com. We make available free of charge, on or through the Investor Relations section of our website, printable copies of our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Unless expressly noted, the information on our website or any other website is not incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this Form 10-K or any other filing we make with the SEC.

Also available at investor.gartner.com, under the “Governance” link, are printable and current copies of our: (i) CEO and CFO Code of Ethics, which applies to our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Controller and other financial managers; (ii) Global Code of Conduct, which applies to all Gartner officers, directors and employees, wherever located; (iii) Principles and Practices of the Board of Directors of Gartner, Inc., the corporate governance principles that have been adopted by our Board; and (iv) charters for each of the Board’s standing committees: Audit, Compensation and Governance/Nominating. We will disclose any waiver we grant to an executive officer or director under our Code of Ethics, or certain amendments to the Code of Ethics, on our website at investor.gartner.com, under the “Governance” link.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS.

We operate in a highly competitive and rapidly changing environment that involves numerous risks and uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. In addition, we and our clients are affected by global economic conditions and trends. The following sections address significant factors, events and uncertainties that make an investment in our securities risky. We urge you to consider carefully the factors described below and the risks that they present for our operations, as well as the risks addressed in other reports and materials that we file with the SEC and the other information, included or incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K. When the factors, events and contingencies described below or elsewhere in this Form 10-K materialize, there could be a material adverse impact on our business, prospects, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows, and therefore have a potential negative effect on the trading price of our common stock. Additional risks not currently known to us or that we now deem immaterial may also harm us and negatively affect your investment. In addition to the effects of the global economic and geopolitical climate on our business and operations discussed in Item 7 of this Form 10-K and in the risk factors below, additional or unforeseen effects from the global economic and geopolitical climate may give rise to or amplify many of these risks discussed below. Risks in this section are grouped in the following categories: (1) strategic and operational risks; (2) macroeconomic and industry risks; (3) legal and regulatory risks; and (4) risks related to our Common Stock. Many risks affect more than one category, and the risks are not in order of significance or probability of occurrence because they have been grouped by categories.

Strategic and Operational Risks
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We may not be able to maintain the quality of our existing products and services. We operate in a rapidly evolving market, and our success depends on our ability to deliver high quality and timely research and analysis to our clients. Any failure to continue to provide credible and reliable information and advice that is useful to our clients could have a material adverse effect on future business and operating results. Further, if our published data, opinions or viewpoints are considered to be wrong, lack independence, or are not substantiated by appropriate research, our reputation will suffer and demand for our products and services may decline. In addition, we must continue to improve our methods for delivering our products and services in a cost-effective manner via the internet and mobile applications in an inflationary economic environment. Failure to maintain state of the art electronic delivery capabilities could materially adversely affect our future business and operating results.

We may not be able to enhance and develop our existing products and services or introduce the new products and services that are needed to remain competitive. The market for our products and services is characterized by rapidly changing needs for information and analysis. The development of new products is a complex and time-consuming process. Nonetheless, to maintain our competitive position, we must continue to anticipate the needs of our clients, develop, enhance and improve our existing products, as well as new products and services to address those needs, deliver all products and services in a timely, user-friendly and state of the art manner, and appropriately position and price new products and services relative to the marketplace and our costs of developing them. Any failure to achieve successful client acceptance of new products and services could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position. Additionally, significant delays in new product or service releases or significant problems in creating new products or services could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial position.

Technology is rapidly evolving, and if we do not continue to develop new product and service offerings in response to these changes, our business could suffer. Disruptive technologies, including in areas of artificial intelligence and machine learning, are rapidly changing the environment in which we, our clients, and our competitors operate and could affect the nature of how we generate revenue. We will need to continue to respond to and anticipate these changes by enhancing our product and service offerings to maintain our competitive position. However, we may not be successful in responding to these forces and enhancing our product and service offerings on a timely basis, and any enhancements we develop may not adequately address the changing needs of our clients. Our future success will depend upon our ability to develop and introduce in a timely manner new or enhance existing offerings that address the changing needs of this constantly evolving marketplace. Failure to develop products that meet the needs of our clients in a timely manner could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial position.

In addition, some of our content is exposed to Internet search engines, which help generate website traffic. Search engines often update their proprietary algorithms, which affects the placement of links to our websites. Some search engines also provide substantive content in search results, which, if expanded to the areas in which we operate, could reduce the need to enter our websites. When a major search engine changes its algorithms in a manner that negatively affects our placement in search results or makes it less likely for our target audience to enter our websites, our business, results of operations and financial position may be harmed.

Our Research business depends on renewals of subscription-based services and sales of new subscription-based services for a significant portion of our revenue, and our failure to renew at historical rates or generate new sales of such services will lead to a decrease in our revenues. A large portion of our success depends on our ability to generate renewals of our subscription-based research products and services and new sales of such products and services, both to new clients and existing clients. These products and services constituted approximately 76% and 79% of total revenues from our on-going operations for 2022 and 2021, respectively. Generating new sales of our subscription-based products and services, both to new and existing clients, is a challenging, costly, and often time-consuming process. If we are unable to generate new sales, due to competition or other factors, our revenues will be adversely affected.

Our research subscription contracts are typically for twelve months or longer. Our ability to maintain contract renewals is subject to numerous factors, including the following:

delivering high-quality and timely analysis and advice to our clients;

understanding and anticipating market trends and the changing needs of our clients; and

providing products and services of the quality and timeliness necessary to withstand competition.

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Additionally, as we continue to adjust our products and service offerings to meet our clients’ continuing needs, we may shift the type and pricing of our products which may impact client renewal rates. While our Research client retention rate was 86% for both 2022 and 2021, there can be no guarantee that we will continue to maintain this rate of client renewals.

The profitability and success of our conferences and other meetings are subject to external factors beyond our control. Our Conferences business constituted approximately 7% and 5% of total revenues from our on-going operations in 2022 and 2021, respectively. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we cancelled in-person conferences scheduled for 2020 beginning in late February/early March 2020. We began holding virtual conferences during the second half of 2020. These virtual conferences resulted in significantly less revenue and gross contribution, but we believe aided in client retention and engagement. We had planned in-person conferences for 2021, but cancelled those conferences due to the ongoing pandemic. We re-launched in-person destination conferences during the second quarter of 2022 and expect to focus on in-person destination conferences in future periods as conditions permit. Although we have returned to offering some in-person conferences, our Conferences revenues may continue to be negatively impacted if in-person conferences are not permitted to be held in the jurisdictions of the conference venues, if client policies prohibit or restrict business travel or if there are public health concerns for attendees, exhibitors or our employees.

The market for desirable dates and locations for our activities has historically been highly competitive. If we cannot secure desirable dates and suitable venues for our conferences the profitability for these conferences will suffer, and our financial position and results of operations may be adversely affected. In addition, because our conferences are scheduled in advance and held at specific locations, the success of these activities can be affected by circumstances outside of our control, such as the occurrence of or concerns related to communicable diseases (such as COVID-19), labor strikes, transportation shutdowns and travel restrictions, economic slowdowns, reductions in government spending, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, war, weather, natural disasters, and other occurrences impacting the global, regional, or national economies, the occurrence of any of which could negatively impact the success of the conference or meeting. We also face the challenge of procuring venues that are sizeable enough at a reasonable cost to accommodate some of our major activities.

We also face risks related to insurance coverage for our cancelled 2020 and 2021 conferences. Our event cancellation insurance, including a two-year policy covering destination conferences during 2020 and 2021 and a policy covering Evanta conferences during 2020, provided up to $170 million in coverage for 2020 cancellations with the right to reinstate the policy limits one time if those limits are utilized. The insurer has contested our right to reinstate the limits and to use reinstated limits to cover losses resulting from conferences cancelled due to COVID-19. Gartner's two-year event cancellation policy also covered events that were planned for 2021 but cancelled, with limits of $150 million with the right to reinstate up to that amount one time if the initial limits are inadequate. The insurer has contested all coverage for events cancelled in 2021 due to COVID-19. We are in litigation with the insurer on these issues. In 2021, we received $166.9 million of insurance proceeds related to 2020 event cancellation claims and recorded a gain of $152.3 million. We received an additional $3.1 million related to 2020 event cancellation insurance claims in February 2023.

In its lawsuit against the insurer, Gartner is seeking to reinstate and recover up to an additional $20 million for cancelled 2020 Evanta meetings and to reinstate and recover up to an additional $150 million in losses from cancelled 2020 destination conferences. Gartner is also seeking $150 million in initial limits for events cancelled in 2021 and to reinstate those limits up to an additional $150 million. In 2022, Gartner also commenced litigation against the insurance broker who negotiated and procured our event cancellation insurance. It is difficult to predict how long it will take to resolve these lawsuits and the resolution could affect our financial results.

Our insurance coverage for 2022 (and likely beyond) excludes coverage for cancellations due to communicable diseases.

Our Consulting business depends on non-recurring engagements and our failure to secure new engagements could lead to a decrease in our revenues. Consulting segment revenues constituted approximately 9% of total revenues from our on-going operations in both 2022 and 2021. Consulting engagements typically are project-based and non-recurring. In addition, revenue from our contract optimization business can fluctuate significantly from period to period and is not predictable. Our ability to replace consulting engagements is subject to numerous factors, including the following:

delivering consistent, high-quality consulting services to our clients;

tailoring our consulting services to the changing needs of our clients; and

our ability to match the skills and competencies of our consulting staff to the skills required for the fulfillment of existing or potential consulting engagements.
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A material decline in our ability to replace consulting engagements will have an adverse impact on our revenues and our financial condition.

We may not be able to attract and retain qualified personnel which could jeopardize the quality of our products and services and our future growth plans. Our success is based on attracting and retaining talented employees and we depend heavily upon the quality of our senior management, research analysts, consultants, sales and other key personnel. The market for highly skilled workers and leaders in our industry is extremely competitive. We face competition for qualified professionals from, among others, technology companies, market research firms, consulting firms, financial services companies and electronic and print media companies, some of which have a greater ability to attract and compensate these professionals. Moreover, increasing wage inflation may affect our profit margin as we strive to provide compensation packages that are competitive. We face risks related to global labor shortages, and competitive markets have increased attrition throughout our sector. Additionally, some of the personnel that we attempt to hire are subject to non-compete agreements that could impede our short-term recruitment efforts. Our employee hiring and retention also depend on our brand and reputation as well as our ability to build and maintain a diverse and inclusive workplace culture that enables our employees to thrive. We may also be limited in our ability to recruit internationally by restrictive domestic immigration laws, and changes to policies that restrain the flow of technical and professional talent could inhibit our ability to adequately staff our research and development and other efforts.

An inability to retain key personnel or to hire and train additional qualified personnel could materially adversely affect the quality of our products and services, as well as our future business and operating results or stock price. In addition, effective succession planning is important to our long-term success, and failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions involving key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution.

Additionally, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the vast majority of our employees transitioned to working from home. In early 2022, we began to operate under a hybrid virtual-first working environment, meaning that most of our employees have the option to work remotely at least some of the time for the foreseeable future. The hybrid working environment may impair our ability to maintain our culture of collaboration and continuous improvement, and may cause disruptions among our employees, including lost productivity, communication challenges and, potentially, employee dissatisfaction and attrition.

If we are unable to enforce and protect our intellectual property rights, our competitive position may be harmed. We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, trade secret, patent, confidentiality, non-compete and other contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property rights. Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights, unauthorized third parties may obtain and use technology or other information that we regard as proprietary. Our intellectual property rights may not survive a legal challenge to their validity or provide significant protection for us. The laws and enforcement mechanisms of certain countries, particularly in emerging markets, do not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Conducting business in certain foreign jurisdictions may require accepting compromised protections or yielding of rights to technology, data or intellectual property rights in order to access those markets. Accordingly, we may not be able to protect our intellectual property against unauthorized or undesired third-party copying or use, which could adversely affect our competitive position. Additionally, there can be no assurance that another party will not assert that we have infringed its intellectual property rights.

Our employees are subject to restrictive covenant agreements (which include provisions related to employees’ ability to compete and solicit customers and employees) and assignment of invention agreements, to the extent permitted under applicable law. When the period expires relating to their particular restrictions, former employees may compete against us. If a former employee violates the provisions of the restrictive covenant agreement, we seek to enforce the restrictions but there is no assurance that we will be successful in our efforts.

Privacy concerns could damage our reputation and deter current and potential clients from using our products and services or attending our conferences. Concerns relating to global data privacy have the potential to damage our reputation and deter current and prospective clients from using our products and services or attending our conferences. In the ordinary course of our business and in accordance with applicable laws, we collect personal information (i) from our employees, (ii) from the users of our products and services, including conference attendees, and (iii) from prospective clients. We collect only basic personal information from our clients and prospects. While we believe our overall data privacy procedures are adequate, the theft or loss of such data, or concerns about our practices, even if unfounded, with regard to the collection, use, disclosure, or security of this personal information or other data protection related matters could damage our reputation and materially adversely affect our operating results. Any systems failure or compromise of our security that results in the disclosure of our users’ personal data could seriously limit the consumption of our products and services and the attendance at our conferences, as well as harm our reputation and brand and, therefore, our business.

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We are exposed to risks related to cybersecurity. A significant portion of our business is conducted over the internet and we rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential, sensitive, proprietary and other types of information relating to our business operations and confidential and sensitive information about our customers and employees in our computer systems and networks, and in those of our third-party vendors. Individuals, groups, and state-sponsored organizations may take steps that pose threats to our operations, our computer systems, our employees, and our customers. The cybersecurity risks we face range from cyber attacks common to most industries, such as the development and deployment of malicious software to gain access to our networks and attempt to steal confidential information, launch distributed denial of service attacks, or attempt other coordinated disruptions, to more advanced threats that target us because of our prominence in the global research and advisory field.

Like many multinational corporations, we, and some third parties upon which we rely, have experienced cyber attacks on our computer systems and networks in the past and may experience them in the future, likely with more frequency and sophistication, and involving a broader range of devices and modes of attack, all of which will increase the difficulty of detecting and successfully defending against them. To date, none have resulted in any material adverse impact to our business, operations, products, services or customers. We have implemented various security controls to both meet our security obligations, while also defending against constantly evolving security threats. Our security controls help to secure our information systems, including our computer systems, intranet, proprietary websites, email and other telecommunications and data networks, and we scrutinize the security of outsourced website and service providers prior to retaining their services. However, the security measures implemented by us or by our outside service providers may not be effective and our systems (and those of our outside service providers) are vulnerable to theft, loss, damage and interruption from a number of potential sources and events, including unauthorized access or security breaches, cyber attacks, computer viruses, power loss, or other disruptive events. As a result of transitioning to a virtual-first hybrid, remote-work environment, most of our employees are working remotely, which magnifies the importance of the integrity of our remote access security measures. Additionally, the security compliance landscape continues to evolve, requiring us to stay apprised of changes in cybersecurity laws, regulations, and security requirements required by our clients, such as the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) and California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA), the Brazilian General Data Protection Law (LGPD), the Chinese Cybersecurity, Data Security and Personal Information Protection laws (and other new and proposed data protection laws), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Recent well-publicized security breaches at other companies have led to enhanced government and regulatory scrutiny of the measures taken by companies to protect against cyber attacks, and may in the future result in heightened cybersecurity requirements, including additional regulatory expectations for oversight of vendors and service providers.

A cyber attack, widespread internet failure or internet access limitations, or disruption of our critical information technology systems through denial of service, viruses, or other events could cause delays in initiating or completing sales, impede delivery of our products and services to our clients, disrupt other critical client-facing or business processes or dislocate our critical internal functions. Additionally, any material breaches of cybersecurity or other technology-related catastrophe, or media reports of perceived security vulnerabilities to our systems or those of our third parties, even if no breach has been attempted or occurred, could cause us to experience reputational harm, loss of customers and revenue, fines, regulatory actions and scrutiny, sanctions or other statutory penalties, litigation, liability for failure to safeguard our customers’ information, or financial losses that are either not insured against or not fully covered through any insurance maintained by us.

Any of the foregoing may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

We may experience outages and disruptions of our online services if we fail to maintain an adequate operations infrastructure. Our increasing user traffic and complexity of our products and services demand more computing power. We have invested substantial amounts and expect to continue investing (as necessary) in access to data centers and equipment and in moving more of our workload into cloud services, upgrading our technology and network infrastructure to handle increased traffic on our websites, and delivering our products and services through emerging channels, such as mobile applications. However, any inefficiencies or operational failures could diminish the quality of our products, services, and user experience, resulting in damage to our reputation and loss of current and potential users, subscribers, and advertisers, potentially harming our financial condition and operating results.

We have grown, and may continue to grow, through acquisitions and strategic investments, which could involve substantial risks. We have made and may continue to make acquisitions of, or significant investments in, businesses that offer complementary products and services or otherwise support our growth objectives. The risks involved in each acquisition or investment include the possibility of paying more than the value we derive from the acquisition, dilution of the interests of our current stockholders should we issue stock in the acquisition, decreased working capital, increased indebtedness, the assumption of undisclosed liabilities and unknown and unforeseen risks, the ability to retain key personnel of the acquired company, the inability to integrate the business of the acquired company, increase revenue or fully realize anticipated synergies,
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the time to train the sales force to market and sell the products of the acquired business, the potential disruption of our ongoing business and the distraction of management from our day to day business. The realization of any of these risks could adversely affect our business. Additionally, we face competition in identifying acquisition targets and consummating acquisitions.

We face risks related to leased office space. We assumed a significant amount of leased office space, in particular in Arlington, Virginia, in connection with the acquisition of CEB Inc. in 2017. In Arlington, we have consolidated all our businesses into a single building and have sublet substantially all of the excess space in our other properties. Through our real estate consolidations and other related activities, we seek to secure quality subtenants with appropriate sublease terms. However, if we fail to secure quality subtenants, or subtenants default on their sublease obligations with us or otherwise terminate their subleases with us, we may experience a loss of planned sublease rental income, which could result in a material charge against our operating results. Additionally, the long-term impact of responses to COVID-19 on leased office space availability and rental costs of leased office space is not yet known.

To accommodate our growth going forward, we have moved to a global hoteling model to better manage our footprint and operating expenses, and will secure new space when the opportunities and need arise. If the new spaces are not completed on schedule, or if the landlord defaults on its commitments and obligations pursuant to the new leases, we may incur additional expenses. In addition, unanticipated difficulties in initiating operations in a new space, including construction delays, natural disasters, IT system interruptions, or other infrastructure support problems, could result in a delay in moving into the new space, resulting in a potential loss of employee and operational productivity and a loss of revenue and/or additional expenses, which could also have an adverse, material impact on our operating results.

Our sales to governments are subject to appropriations and some may be terminated early. We derive significant revenues from research and consulting contracts with the United States government and its respective agencies, numerous state and local governments and their respective agencies, and foreign governments and their agencies. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, approximately $932 million and $790 million, respectively, of our outstanding revenue contracts were attributable to government entities. Our U.S. government contracts are subject to the approval of appropriations by the U.S. Congress to fund the agencies contracting for our services. Additionally, our contracts at the state and local levels, as well as foreign government contracts, are subject to various governmental authorizations and funding approvals and mechanisms. Certain of these contracts may be terminated at any time by the government entity without cause or penalty (“termination for convenience”). In addition, contracts with U.S. federal, state and local, and foreign governments and their respective agencies are subject to increasingly complex bidding procedures and compliance requirements, as well as intense competition. Failure to adequately abide by these procedures and compliance requirements could result in an inability to contract with governments or their agencies, termination of existing contracts, or even suspension and disbarment from doing future business with a government or agency. Moreover, while terminations by governments for lack of funding have not been significant historically, should appropriations for the various governments and agencies that contract with us be curtailed, or should our government contracts be terminated for convenience, we may experience a significant loss of revenues.

We may not be able to maintain the equity in our brand name. We believe that our “Gartner” brand, in particular our independence, is critical to our efforts to attract and retain clients and top talent, and that the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition increases. We may also discover that our brand, though recognized, is not perceived to be relevant by new market segments we have targeted. We may expand our marketing activities to promote and strengthen the Gartner brand and may need to increase our marketing budget, hire additional marketing and public relations personnel, and expend additional sums to protect our brand and otherwise increase expenditures to create and maintain client brand loyalty. If we fail to effectively promote, maintain, and protect the Gartner brand, or incur excessive expenses in doing so, our future business and operating results could be materially adversely impacted.

Our outstanding debt obligations could negatively impact our financial condition and future operating results. As of December 31, 2022, the Company had outstanding debt of $282 million under its 2020 term loan and revolving credit facility (the “2020 Credit Agreement”), $800 million of Senior Notes due 2028 (the “2028 Notes”), $600 million of Senior Notes due 2029 (the “2029 Notes”) and $800 million of Senior Notes due 2030 (the “2030 Notes”). Additional information regarding the 2020 Credit Agreement, the 2028 Notes, the 2029 Notes and the 2030 Notes is included in Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

The debt service requirements of these borrowings could impair our future financial condition and operating results. In addition, the affirmative, negative and financial covenants of the 2020 Credit Agreement, as well as the covenants related to the Senior Notes, could limit our future financial flexibility. A failure to comply with these covenants could result in acceleration of all amounts outstanding, which could materially impact our financial condition unless accommodations could be negotiated with our lenders and noteholders. No assurance can be given that we would be successful in doing so, or that any accommodations that we were able to negotiate would be on terms as favorable as those currently in place. The outstanding debt may limit the
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amount of cash or additional credit available to us, which could restrain our ability to expand or enhance products and services, respond to competitive pressures or pursue future business opportunities requiring substantial investments of additional capital.

In addition, variable-rate borrowings under our 2020 Credit Agreement typically use LIBOR as a benchmark based on market participant judgments for establishing the rate of interest. We expect LIBOR to disappear entirely after June 2023 for rates applicable to the 2020 Credit Agreement and our existing derivatives contracts. The Alternative Reference Rates Committee (ARRC), which was convened by the Federal Reserve Board and the New York Fed, has identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) as the recommended risk-free alternative rate for USD LIBOR. The future consequences of a transition away from LIBOR on our variable-rate borrowings, including the possible transition to rates based on observable transactions, such as SOFR, cannot be predicted at this time, but could include an increase in the cost of our variable-rate indebtedness and volatility in our earnings.

We may require additional cash resources which may not be available on favorable terms or at all. We may require additional cash resources due to changed business conditions, implementation of our strategy and stock repurchase program, to repay indebtedness or to pursue future business opportunities requiring substantial investments of additional capital, including acquisitions. If our existing financial resources are insufficient to satisfy our requirements, we may seek additional borrowings or issue debt. Prevailing credit and debt market conditions may negatively affect debt availability and cost, and, as a result, financing may not be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. In addition, the incurrence of additional indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could require us to agree to operating and financial covenants that would further restrict our operations.

Natural disasters, pandemics, terrorist acts, war, actions by governments, and other geopolitical activities could disrupt our operations. We operate in numerous U.S. and international locations, and we have offices in a number of major cities across the globe. The occurrence of, or concerns related to, a major weather event, earthquake, hurricane, flood, drought, volcanic activity, disease or pandemic, or other natural disaster could significantly disrupt our operations. In addition, acts of civil unrest, failure of critical infrastructure, terrorism, armed conflict, war (including the war in Ukraine), and abrupt political change, as well as responses by various governments and the international community to such acts, can have a negative effect on our business. Such events could cause delays in initiating or completing sales, impede delivery of our products and services to our clients, disrupt or shut down the internet or other critical client-facing and business processes, impede the travel of our personnel and clients, dislocate our critical internal functions and personnel, and in general harm our ability to conduct normal business operations, any of which can negatively impact our financial condition and operating results. Such events could also impact the timing and budget decisions of our clients, which could materially adversely affect our business.

Macroeconomic and Industry Risks

We are subject to risks from operating globally. We have clients in approximately 90 countries and territories and a substantial amount of our revenue is earned outside of the United States. Our operating results are subject to all of the risks typically inherent in international business activities, including general political and economic conditions in each country, challenges in staffing and managing foreign operations, changes in regulatory requirements, compliance with numerous and complex foreign laws and regulations, currency restrictions and fluctuations, the difficulty of enforcing client agreements, collecting accounts receivable and protecting intellectual property rights including against economic espionage in international jurisdictions. Further, we rely on local distributors or sales agents in some international locations. If any of these arrangements are terminated by our agent or us, we may not be able to replace the arrangement on beneficial terms or on a timely basis, or clients of the local distributor or sales agent may not want to continue to do business with us or our new agent.

Additionally, tariffs, trade barriers and restrictions, and other acts by governments to protect domestic markets or to retaliate against the trade tariffs and restrictions of other nations could negatively affect our business operations. In addition, the withdrawal of nations from existing common markets or trading blocs, such as the exit of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (the EU), commonly referred to as Brexit, could be disruptive and negatively impact the business of our clients. We continue to monitor Brexit and its potential impacts on our results of operations and financial condition. Depending on the application of the terms of the trade and cooperation agreement, there could be near or long-term negative impacts on our clients who have significant operations in the UK. This may cause clients in the UK to forgo new purchases, and decrease renewals of subscription-based services and to request to cancel or renegotiate current subscription-based services. The impact of any of these effects of Brexit, among others, could materially harm our business and financial results.

Our operating results could be negatively impacted by global economic conditions. Our business is impacted by general economic conditions and trends in the United States and abroad, including without limitation inflation, slowing growth, rising interest rates and recession. In its recent report, Global Economics Prospects, January 2023, the World Bank reported that
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global growth is projected to decelerate sharply in 2023, to its third weakest pace in nearly three decades, overshadowed only by the 2009 and 2020 global recessions. According to the World Bank, this reflects policy tightening aimed at containing very high inflation, worsening financial conditions, and continued disruptions from Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. The report also notes that further negative shocks – such as higher inflation, even tighter policy, financial stress, deeper weakness in major economies, or rising geopolitical tensions – could push the global economy into recession. The World Bank predicts that global growth is expected to decelerate sharply to 1.7% in 2023 and increase modestly to 2.7% in 2024. A downturn in growth could negatively and materially affect future demand for our products and services in general, in certain geographic regions, in particular countries, or industry sectors, or could reduce demand for our in-person conferences. In addition, U.S. federal, state and local government spending limits may reduce demand for our products and services from those governmental agencies as well as organizations that receive funding from those agencies and could negatively affect macroeconomic conditions in the United States, which could further reduce demand for our products and services. Such difficulties could negatively impact our ability to maintain or improve the various business measurements we utilize (which are defined in this Annual Report), such as contract value and consulting backlog growth, client retention, wallet retention, consulting utilization rates, and the number of attendees and exhibitors at our conferences and other meetings. Failure to achieve acceptable levels of these indicators or improve them will negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We face significant competition and our failure to compete successfully could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows. The markets for our products and services are characterized by intense competition and we face direct competition from a significant number of independent providers of information products and services, including information available on the internet free of charge. We also compete indirectly against consulting firms and other information providers, including electronic and print media companies, some of which have greater financial, information gathering and marketing resources than we do. These indirect competitors could also choose to compete directly with us in the future. In addition, low barriers to entry exist in the markets in which we do business. As a result, new competitors may emerge, and existing competitors may start to provide additional or complementary services. Additionally, technological advances may provide increased competition from a variety of sources.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully compete against current and future competitors and our failure to do so will result in loss of market share, diminished value in our products and services, reduced pricing and increased marketing expenditures. Furthermore, we will not be successful if we cannot compete effectively on quality of research and analysis, timely delivery of information, customer service, the ability to offer products to meet changing market needs for information and analysis, or price.

The COVID-19 pandemic had a material adverse impact on our operations and financial performance, specifically our Conferences segment, and may continue to have an adverse impact on our operations. We face challenges from evolving factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic that are not within our control, remain uncertain and to which we may not effectively respond. For example, our operations span numerous locations around the world, and many local governments and countries may impose various restrictions on our employees, partners and customers’ physical movement to limit the spread of COVID-19. These restrictions are constantly changing, and we cannot predict how long and to what extent they will continue. We also face increased operational hurdles as we make efforts to promote employee health and safety, including limiting travel and implementing a hybrid virtual-first work policy, meaning that most of our employees will have the option to work remotely at least some of the time, for the foreseeable future.

Additionally, for the continuing risks we face in our Conferences segment related to COVID-19, please refer above to the risk factor “The profitability and success of our conferences and other meetings are subject to external factors beyond our control.”

We are exposed to volatility in foreign currency exchange rates from our international operations. A significant portion of our revenues are typically derived from sales outside of the United States. Revenues earned outside the United States are typically transacted in local currencies, which may fluctuate significantly against the U.S. dollar. While we use forward exchange contracts to a limited extent to seek to mitigate foreign currency risk, our revenues and results of operations could be adversely affected by unfavorable foreign currency fluctuations.

Our business could be negatively impacted by climate change. While we seek to mitigate the business risks associated with climate change for our operations, there are inherent climate-related risks wherever business is conducted. Access to clean water and reliable energy in the communities where we conduct our business, whether for our offices, clients, vendors or other stakeholders is a priority. We have large offices in Connecticut, Florida, India, the United Kingdom, Spain and Australia, and other locations that are vulnerable to climate change effects. Changing market dynamics, global policy developments, and the increasing frequency and impact of extreme weather events on critical infrastructure in the U.S. and elsewhere have the potential to disrupt our business, the business of our vendors, and the business clients, and may cause us to experience higher attrition, losses and additional costs to maintain or resume operations.
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Failure to achieve ESG commitments or meet stakeholder expectations in ESG could harm our reputation. We have committed to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2035 in accordance with the SBTi's Net-Zero Standard. Our ability to achieve this and other ESG goals is subject to numerous risks outside of our control. Our failure to achieve them or continue practices that meet evolving stakeholder expectations in ESG could harm our reputation, adversely affect our ability to attract and retain employees or clients and expose us to increased scrutiny from investors and regulatory authorities.

Legal and Regulatory Risks

Our failure to comply with complex U.S. and foreign laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our operations or financial condition. Our business and operations may be conducted in countries where corruption has historically penetrated the economy. It is our policy to comply, and to require our local partners, distributors, agents, and those with whom we do business to comply, with all applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the UK Bribery Act, regulations established by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) and with applicable local laws of the foreign countries in which we operate. There can be no assurance that all of our employees, contractors and agents will comply with the Company’s policies that mandate compliance with these laws. Any determination that we have violated or are responsible for violations of these laws, even if inadvertent, could be costly and disrupt our business, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows, as well as on our reputation. For example, during the second half of 2018 we fully cooperated with a South African government commission established to review a wide range of issues related to the country’s revenue service, including the procurement and fulfillment of consulting agreements we entered into with the revenue service through a sales agent from late 2014 through early 2017. In parallel, we commenced an internal investigation regarding this matter. We voluntarily disclosed the matter to the SEC and Department of Justice (DOJ) in November 2018. Since that time, we have cooperated fully with their review, and we are working toward a resolution. At this time, we do not believe the ultimate outcome of these matters will have a material effect on our financial results, however, an unexpected adverse resolution of these matters could negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.

In addition, continuously evolving data protection laws and regulations, such as the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the decision in the Schrems II case, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) and California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA), the Brazilian General Data Protection Law (LGPD), the Chinese Cybersecurity, Data Security and Personal Information laws and other new and proposed data protection laws, pose increasingly complex compliance challenges. We have implemented GDPR, CCPA, CPRA and LGPD compliance programs, as well as policies and processes to comply with the applicable Chinese data protection laws. In the meantime, Gartner will continue to maintain and rely upon our comprehensive global data protection compliance program, which includes administrative, technical, and physical controls to safeguard our associates’ and clients’ personal data. The interpretation and application of these laws in the United States, the EU, China and elsewhere are often uncertain, inconsistent and ever changing. Complying with these various laws could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner adverse to our business.

We face risks related to litigation. We are, and in the future may be, subject to a variety of legal actions, such as employment, breach of contract, intellectual property-related, and business torts, including claims of unfair trade practices and misappropriation of trade secrets. Given the nature of our business, we are also subject to defamation (including libel and slander), negligence, or other claims relating to the information we publish. Regardless of the merits of any claim and despite vigorous efforts to defend any such claim, claims can affect our reputation, and responding to any such claim could be time consuming, result in costly litigation and require us to enter into settlements, royalty and licensing agreements which may not be offered or available on reasonable terms. If a claim is made against us that we cannot defend or resolve on reasonable terms, our business, brand, and financial results could be materially adversely affected.

We face risks related to taxation. We are a global company and a substantial amount of our earnings is generated outside of the United States and taxed at rates other than the U.S. statutory federal income tax rate. Our effective tax rate, financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected by earnings being higher than anticipated in jurisdictions with higher statutory tax rates and, conversely, lower than anticipated in jurisdictions that have lower statutory tax rates, by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and/or by changes in tax laws or accounting principles and their interpretation by relevant authorities. Corporate tax reform, base-erosion efforts and tax transparency continue to be high priorities in many countries. Tax reform legislation is being proposed or enacted in a number of jurisdictions where we do business. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (“the OECD”) has issued various proposals that would change long-standing global tax principles. These proposals include a two-pillar approach to global taxation (BEPS 2.0/ Pillar Two), focusing on global profit allocation and a global minimum tax rate. On December 12, 2022, the European Union member states agreed to implement the OECD’s global corporate minimum tax rate of 15%, to be effective as of January 2024. Other countries are also actively considering changes to their tax laws to adopt certain parts of the OECD’s proposals. In December 2022, South Korea
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enacted new global minimum tax rules to align with Pillar Two. The enactment of this and similar legislation could significantly increase our tax obligations in many countries where we do business. These actual, potential, and other changes, both individually and collectively, could materially increase our effective tax rate and negatively impact our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. We will continue to monitor and reflect the impact of such legislative changes in future financial statements as appropriate.

In addition, our tax filings for various years are subject to examination by domestic and international taxing authorities and, during the ordinary course of business, we are under audit by various tax authorities. Recent and future actions on the part of the OECD and various governments have increased scrutiny of our tax filings. Although we believe that our tax filings and related accruals are reasonable, the final resolution of tax audits may be materially different from what is reflected in our historical tax provisions and accruals and could have a material adverse effect on our effective tax rate, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our corporate compliance program cannot guarantee that we are in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations. We operate in a number of countries, including emerging markets, and as a result we are required to comply with numerous, and in many cases, changing international and U.S. federal, state and local laws and regulations, including regulations relating to the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war. Accordingly, we have a corporate compliance program that includes the creation of appropriate policies defining employee behavior that mandate adherence to laws, employee training, annual affirmations, monitoring and enforcement. However, failure of any employee to comply with any of these laws, regulations or our policies, could result in a range of liabilities for the employee and for the Company, including, but not limited to, significant penalties and fines, sanctions and/or litigation, and the expenses associated with defending and resolving any of the foregoing, any of which could have a negative impact on our reputation and business.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

Our anti-takeover protections may discourage or prevent a change of control, even if a change in control would be beneficial to our stockholders. Provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law may make it difficult for any party to acquire control of us in a transaction not approved by our Board of Directors. These provisions include: (i) the ability of our Board of Directors to issue and determine the terms of preferred stock; (ii) advance notice requirements for inclusion of stockholder proposals at stockholder meetings; and (iii) the anti-takeover provisions of Delaware law. These provisions could discourage or prevent a change of control or change in management that might provide stockholders with a premium to the market price of their common stock.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.

None.
 
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.

As of December 31, 2022, we leased approximately 20 domestic and 65 international office properties for our ongoing business operations. These offices, which exclude certain properties that we sublease to others, support our executive and administrative activities, research and consulting, sales, systems support, operations, and other functions. Our corporate office is based in Stamford, Connecticut. We also maintain an important presence in: Fort Myers, Florida; Arlington, Virginia; Egham, the United Kingdom; Gurgaon, India; Irving, Texas; and Barcelona, Spain. The Company does not own any real property.

Our Stamford corporate headquarters is comprised of leased office space in two buildings located on the same campus. Our lease for the Stamford headquarters facility expires in 2027 and contains three five-year renewal options at fair value.

In early 2022, we began to operate under a hybrid virtual-first working environment, meaning that most of our employees have the option to work remotely at least some of the time for the foreseeable future. As a result, we believe our current real estate footprint is sufficient to support future growth.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.

We are involved in legal and administrative proceedings and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. We believe that the potential liability, if any, in excess of amounts already accrued from all proceedings, claims and litigation will not have a material effect on our financial position, cash flows or results of operations when resolved in a future period.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.
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Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “IT”. As of February 3, 2023, there were 969 holders of record of our common stock. Our 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders will be held virtually on June 1, 2023.
 
SECURITIES AUTHORIZED FOR ISSUANCE UNDER EQUITY COMPENSATION PLANS
 
The equity compensation plan information set forth in Part III, Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is hereby incorporated by reference into this Part II, Item 5.

SHARE REPURCHASES

In May 2015, our Board of Directors (the “Board”) authorized a share repurchase program to repurchase up to $1.2 billion of our common stock. The Board authorized incremental share repurchases of up to an additional $1.6 billion and $1.0 billion of the Company’s common stock during 2021 and 2022, respectively. On February 2, 2023, the Company's Board of Directors authorized incremental share repurchases of up to an additional $400 million of Gartner's common stock. The Company may repurchase its common stock from time-to-time in amounts, at prices and in the manner that the Company deems appropriate, subject to the availability of stock, prevailing market conditions, the trading price of the stock, the Company’s financial performance and other conditions. Repurchases may be made through open market purchases (which may include repurchase plans designed to comply with Rule 10b5-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended), accelerated share repurchases, private transactions or other transactions and will be funded by cash on hand and borrowings. Repurchases may also be made from time-to-time in connection with the settlement of the Company’s stock-based compensation awards. The table below summarizes the repurchases of our common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2022 pursuant to our share repurchase program and the settlement of stock-based compensation awards.
PeriodTotal Number of Shares Purchased
(#)
Average Price Paid Per Share
($)
Total Number of Shares Purchased Under Announced Programs
(#)
Maximum Approximate Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
(in thousands)
October 1, 2022 to October 31, 202224,587 $279.60 24,196 $606,007 
November 1, 2022 to November 30, 20229,392 320.65 — 606,007 
December 1, 2022 to December 31, 20224,189 344.30 — $606,007 
   Total for the quarter (1)38,168 $296.80 24,196 
(1)The repurchased shares during the three months ended December 31, 2022 included purchases for both the settlement of stock-based compensation awards and open market purchases.

ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
 
The purpose of this Management’s Discussion and Analysis (“MD&A”) is to facilitate an understanding of significant factors influencing the operating results, financial condition and cash flows of Gartner, Inc. Additionally, the MD&A conveys our expectations of the potential impact of known trends, events or uncertainties that may impact future results. You should read this discussion in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Historical results and percentage relationships are not necessarily indicative of operating results for future periods. References to “Gartner,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” in this MD&A are to Gartner, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

This MD&A provides an analysis of our consolidated financial results, segment results and cash flows for 2022 and 2021 under the headings “Results of Operations,” “Segment Results” and “Liquidity and Capital Resources.” For a similar detailed discussion comparing 2021 and 2020, refer to those headings under Item 7., “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
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In addition to GAAP results, we provide foreign currency neutral dollar amounts and percentages for our revenues, certain expenses, contract values and other metrics. These foreign currency neutral dollar amounts and percentages eliminate the effects of exchange rate fluctuations and thus provide a more accurate and meaningful trend in the underlying data being measured. We calculate foreign currency neutral dollar amounts by converting the underlying amounts in local currency for different periods into U.S. dollars by applying the same foreign exchange rates to all periods presented.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

In addition to historical information, this Annual Report on Form 10-K contains certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements are any statements other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our expectations, beliefs, hopes, intentions, projections or strategies regarding the future. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “should,” “could,” “believe,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue” or other words of similar meaning.

We operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment that involves numerous known and unknown risks and uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in any of our forward-looking statements are reasonable, actual results could differ materially from those projected or assumed in any of our forward-looking statements. Our future quarterly and annual revenues, operating income, results of operations and cash flows, as well as any forward-looking statement, are subject to change and to inherent risks and uncertainties, such as those disclosed or incorporated by reference in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Important factors that could cause our actual results, performance and achievements, or industry results to differ materially from estimates or projections contained in our forward-looking statements include, among others, the following: the impact of general economic conditions, including inflation (and related monetary policy by governments in response to inflation), on economic activity and our operations; changes in macroeconomic and market conditions and market volatility, including interest rates and the effect on the credit markets and access to capital; the impact of global economic and geopolitical conditions, including inflation, recession and the COVID-19 pandemic; our ability to carry out our strategic initiatives and manage associated costs; our ability to recover potential claims under our event cancellation insurance; the timing of conferences and meetings, in particular our Gartner Symposium/Xpo series that normally occurs during the fourth quarter; our ability to achieve and effectively manage growth, including our ability to integrate our acquisitions and consummate and integrate future acquisitions; our ability to pay our debt obligations; our ability to maintain and expand our products and services; our ability to expand or retain our customer base; our ability to grow or sustain revenue from individual customers; our ability to attract and retain a professional staff of research analysts and consultants as well as experienced sales personnel upon whom we are dependent, especially in light of increasing labor competition; our ability to achieve continued customer renewals and achieve new contract value, backlog and deferred revenue growth in light of competitive pressures; our ability to successfully compete with existing competitors and potential new competitors; our ability to enforce and protect our intellectual property rights; additional risks associated with international operations, including foreign currency fluctuations; the impact on our business resulting from changes in international conditions, including those resulting from the war in Ukraine and current and future sanctions imposed by governments or other authorities; the impact of restructuring and other charges on our businesses and operations; cybersecurity incidents; risks associated with the creditworthiness, budget cuts, and shutdown of governments and agencies; our ability to meet ESG commitments; the impact of changes in tax policy (including the recently enacted Inflation Reduction Act of 2022) and heightened scrutiny from various taxing authorities globally; changes to laws and regulations; and other risks and uncertainties. The potential fluctuations in our operating income could cause period-to-period comparisons of operating results not to be meaningful and could provide an unreliable indication of future operating results. A description of the risk factors associated with our business is included under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Forward-looking statements are subject to risks, estimates and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed in, or implied by, the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, those listed above or described under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Readers should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect management’s opinion only as of the date on which they were made. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K speak only as of the date hereof, and forward-looking statements in documents attached that are incorporated by reference speak only as of the date of those documents. Except as required by law, we disclaim any obligation to review or update these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances as they occur.

BUSINESS OVERVIEW

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Gartner, Inc. (NYSE: IT) delivers actionable, objective insight to executives and their teams. Our expert guidance and tools enable faster, smarter decisions and stronger performance on an organization’s mission critical priorities.

We are a trusted advisor and an objective resource for more than 15,000 enterprises in approximately 90 countries and territories — across all major functions, in every industry and enterprise size.

Gartner delivers its products and services globally through three business segments – Research, Conferences and Consulting, as described below.

Research equips executives and their teams from every function and across all industries with actionable, objective insight, guidance and tools. Our experienced experts deliver all this value informed by a combination of practitioner-sourced and data-driven research to help our clients address their mission critical priorities.

Conferences provides executives and teams across an organization the opportunity to learn, share and network. From our Gartner Symposium/Xpo series, to industry-leading conferences focused on specific business roles and topics, to peer-driven sessions, our offerings enable attendees to experience the best of Gartner insight and guidance.

Consulting serves senior executives leading technology-driven strategic initiatives leveraging the power of Gartner’s actionable, objective insight. Through custom analysis and on-the-ground support we enable optimized technology investments and stronger performance on our clients’ mission critical priorities.


Recent Events

The invasion of Ukraine by Russia and the sanctions and other measures being imposed in response to this conflict have increased the level of economic and political uncertainty. In March 2022, we began winding down our business in Russia. Russia has not composed a material portion of our consolidated revenues, net income, net assets or workforce. We do not have a business in Ukraine. Other impacts due to this evolving situation are currently unknown and could subject our business to materially adverse consequences should the situation escalate or cause an expansion of economic disruption beyond its current scope to the rest of Europe, where a material portion of our business is carried out. A prolonged disruption may adversely affect our business operations, financial performance and results of operations.

Inflation rates, particularly in North America and Europe, have increased significantly in the past year. Inflation has not had a material effect on our business operations, financial performance and results of operations, other than its impact on the general economy. However, if our costs, in particular personnel-related costs, were to become subject to significant inflationary pressures, we may not be able to fully offset such higher costs through price increases in future periods. Our inability or failure to realize these offsets could adversely affect our business operations, financial performance and results of operations.

On August 16, 2022, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 was enacted into law in the United States. The statute includes a 15% corporate alternative minimum tax on U.S. corporations with adjusted financial statement income in excess of $1.0 billion which is effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2022. The statute also includes a 1% excise tax on publicly traded U.S. corporations for the value of any of its stock that is repurchased by the corporation, excluding certain excepted repurchases. We do not expect it will have a material impact on our future U.S. tax expense, cash taxes and effective tax rate. We also do not expect it to have a material impact on the amount of potential future share repurchases.

In November 2022, we entered into a definitive agreement to sell our TalentNeuron business. As of December 31, 2022, the assets and liabilities of TalentNeuron were considered held for sale, resulting in $49.0 million of assets held for sale and $30.8 million of liabilities held for sale on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. The majority of the held for sale assets were goodwill, intangible assets, net and accounts receivable, with carrying amounts of $16.0 million, $9.5 million and $15.9 million, respectively, while the majority of the held for sale liabilities was deferred revenues, with a carrying amount of $27.1 million. TalentNeuron is included in our Research segment.

On February 2, 2023, we completed the sale of TalentNeuron for approximately $164.0 million, prior to final working capital adjustments.


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BUSINESS MEASUREMENTS

We believe that the following business measurements are important performance indicators for our business segments:
BUSINESS SEGMENTBUSINESS MEASUREMENT
Research
Contract value represents the dollar value attributable to all of our subscription-related contracts. It is calculated as the annualized value of all contracts in effect at a specific point in time, without regard to the duration of the contract. Contract value primarily includes Research deliverables for which revenue is recognized on a ratable basis, as well as other deliverables (primarily Conferences tickets) for which revenue is recognized when the deliverable is utilized. Comparing contract value year-over-year not only measures the short-term growth of our business, but also signals the long-term health of our Research subscription business since it measures revenue that is highly likely to recur over a multi-year period. Our contract value consists of Global Technology Sales contract value, which includes sales to users and providers of technology, and Global Business Sales contract value, which includes sales to all other functional leaders.
Client retention rate represents a measure of client satisfaction and renewed business relationships at a specific point in time. Client retention is calculated on a percentage basis by dividing our current clients, who were also clients a year ago, by all clients from a year ago. Client retention is calculated at an enterprise level, which represents a single company or customer.
Wallet retention rate represents a measure of the amount of contract value we have retained with clients over a twelve-month period. Wallet retention is calculated on a percentage basis by dividing the contract value of our current clients, who were also clients a year ago, by the contract value from a year ago, excluding the impact of foreign currency exchange. When wallet retention exceeds client retention, it is an indication of retention of higher-spending clients, or increased spending by retained clients, or both. Wallet retention is calculated at an enterprise level, which represents a single company or customer.
Conferences
Number of destination conferences represents the total number of hosted virtual or in-person conferences completed during the period. Single day, local meetings are excluded.
Number of destination conferences attendees represents the total number of people who attend virtual or in-person conferences. Single day, local meetings are excluded.
Consulting
Consulting backlog represents future revenue to be derived from in-process consulting and benchmark analytics engagements.
Utilization rate represents a measure of productivity of our consultants. Utilization rates are calculated for billable headcount on a percentage basis by dividing total hours billed by total hours available to bill.
Billing rate represents earned billable revenue divided by total billable hours.
Average annualized revenue per billable headcount represents a measure of the revenue generating ability of an average billable consultant and is calculated periodically by multiplying the average billing rate per hour times the utilization percentage times the billable hours available for one year.

 
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF OPERATIONS AND FINANCIAL POSITION
The fundamentals of our strategy include a focus on creating actionable insights for executive leaders and their teams, delivering innovative and highly differentiated product offerings, building a strong sales capability, providing world class client service with a focus on client engagement and retention, and continuously improving our operational effectiveness.

We had total revenues of $5.5 billion in 2022, an increase of 16% compared to 2021 on a reported basis and 20% excluding the foreign currency impact. Net income increased to $807.8 million in 2022 from $793.6 million in 2021 and diluted earnings per share was $9.96 in 2022 compared to $9.21 in 2021.

Research revenues increased to $4.6 billion in 2022, an increase of 12% compared to 2021 on a reported basis and 16% excluding the foreign currency impact. The Research gross contribution margin was 74% in both 2022 and 2021. Contract value was $4.7 billion at December 31, 2022, an increase of 12% compared to December 31, 2021 on a foreign currency neutral basis.

Conferences revenues increased to $389.3 million in 2022, an increase of 82% compared to 2021 on a reported basis and 90% excluding the foreign currency impact. The Conferences gross contribution margin was 54% and 62% in 2022 and 2021, respectively. We held 25 in-person and 16 virtual conferences in 2022, and 39 virtual conferences in 2021.

Consulting revenues increased to $481.8 million in 2022, an increase of 15% compared to 2021 on a reported basis and 22% excluding the foreign currency impact. The Consulting gross contribution margin was 39% and 38% in 2022 and 2021, respectively. Backlog was $139.7 million at December 31, 2022.

Cash provided by operating activities was $1.1 billion and $1.3 billion during 2022 and 2021, respectively. As of December 31, 2022, we had $698.0 million of cash and cash equivalents and approximately $1.0 billion of available borrowing capacity on our revolving credit facility. During 2022, we repurchased 3.8 million shares of the Company’s common stock for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $1.0 billion.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires the application of appropriate accounting policies and the use of estimates. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 1 — Business and Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Management considers the policies discussed below to be critical to an understanding of our consolidated financial statements because their application requires complex and subjective management judgments and estimates. Specific risks for these critical accounting policies are also described below.

The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions about future events. We develop our estimates using both current and historical experience, as well as other factors, including the general economic environment and actions we may take in the future. We adjust such estimates when facts and circumstances dictate. However, our estimates may involve significant uncertainties and judgments and cannot be determined with precision. In addition, these estimates are based on our best judgment at a point in time and, as such, they may ultimately differ materially from actual results. Ongoing changes in our estimates could be material and would be reflected in the Company’s consolidated financial statements in future periods.

Our critical accounting policies and estimates are described below.

Revenue recognition — Our revenue by significant source is accounted for as follows:

Research revenues are mainly derived from subscription contracts for research products. The related revenues are deferred and recognized ratably over the applicable contract term. Fees derived from assisting organizations in selecting the right business software for their needs are recognized when the leads are provided to vendors.

Conferences revenues are deferred and recognized upon the completion of the related conference or meeting.

Consulting revenues are principally generated from fixed fee or time and materials engagements. Revenues from fixed fee contracts are recognized as we work to satisfy our performance obligations. Revenues from time and materials engagements are recognized as work is delivered and/or services are provided. Revenues related to contract optimization engagements are contingent in nature and are only recognized upon satisfaction of all conditions related to their payment.

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The majority of our Research contracts are billable upon signing, absent special terms granted on a limited basis from time to time. Research contracts are generally non-cancelable and non-refundable, except for government contracts that may have cancellation or fiscal funding clauses. It is our policy to record the amount of a subscription contract that is billable as a fee receivable at the time the contract is signed with a corresponding amount as deferred revenue because the contract represents a legally enforceable claim.

Note 1 — Business and Significant Accounting Policies and Note 9 — Revenue and Related Matters in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provide additional information regarding our revenues.

Accounting for income taxes — The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. We estimate our income taxes in each of the jurisdictions where the Company operates. This process involves estimating our current tax expense or benefit together with assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are included in our consolidated balance sheets. When assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, we consider if it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. In making this assessment, we consider the availability of loss carryforwards, projected reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. The Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained based on the technical merits of the position. Recognized tax positions are measured at the largest amount of benefit with greater than a 50% likelihood of being realized. The Company uses estimates in determining the amount of unrecognized tax benefits associated with uncertain tax positions. Significant judgment is required in evaluating tax law and measuring the benefits likely to be realized. Uncertain tax positions are periodically re-evaluated and adjusted as more information about their ultimate realization becomes available.

Accounting for stock-based compensation — The Company accounts for stock-based compensation awards in accordance with FASB ASC Topics 505 and 718 and SEC Staff Accounting Bulletins No. 107 and No. 110. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense, which is based on the fair value of the award on the date of grant, over the related service period. Note 10 — Stock-Based Compensation in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding stock-based compensation. Determining the appropriate fair value model and calculating the fair value of stock-based compensation awards requires the use of certain subjective assumptions, including the expected life of a stock-based compensation award and the Company’s common stock price volatility. In addition, determining the appropriate periodic stock-based compensation expense requires management to estimate the likelihood of the achievement of certain performance targets. The assumptions used in calculating the fair values of stock-based compensation awards and the related periodic expense represent management’s best estimates, which involve inherent uncertainties and the application of judgment. As a result, if circumstances change and the Company deems it necessary in the future to modify the assumptions it made or to use different assumptions, or if the quantity and nature of the Company’s stock-based compensation awards changes, then the amount of expense may need to be adjusted and future stock-based compensation expense could be materially different from what has been recorded in the current period.

A change in any of the terms or conditions of stock-based compensation awards is accounted for as a modification of the award. Incremental compensation cost is measured as the excess, if any, of the fair value of the modified award over the fair value of the original award immediately before its terms are modified, measured based on the fair value of the awards at the modification date. For vested awards, we recognize incremental compensation cost in the period the modification occurs. For unvested awards, we recognize any incremental compensation expense at the modification date or ratably over the requisite remaining service period, as appropriate. If the fair value of the modified award is lower than the fair value of the original award immediately before modification, the minimum compensation cost we recognize is the cost of the original award.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Consolidated Results

The table below presents an analysis of selected line items and year-over-year changes in our Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years indicated (in thousands).
 Year Ended December 31, 2022Year Ended December 31, 2021Increase (Decrease)Percentage Increase
(Decrease)
Total revenues$5,475,846 $4,733,962 $741,884 16 %
Costs and expenses:    
     Cost of services and product development1,693,771 1,444,093 249,678 17 
     Selling, general and administrative2,480,944 2,155,658 325,286 15 
     Depreciation93,410 102,802 (9,392)(9)
     Amortization of intangibles98,536 109,603 (11,067)(10)
     Acquisition and integration charges9,079 6,055 3,024 50 
Operating income1,100,106 915,751 184,355 20 
Interest expense, net(121,323)(116,620)4,703 
Gain on event cancellation insurance claims— 152,310 (152,310)nm
Other income, net48,412 18,429 29,983 163 
Less: Provision for income taxes219,396 176,310 43,086 24 
Net income$807,799 $793,560 $14,239 %
nm = not meaningful

Total revenues for 2022 were $5.5 billion, an increase of $741.9 million compared to 2021, or 16% on a reported basis and 20% excluding the foreign currency impact. The tables below present (i) revenues by geographic region (based on where the sale is fulfilled) and (ii) revenues by segment for the years indicated (in thousands).

Primary Geographic MarketYear Ended December 31, 2022Year Ended December 31, 2021IncreasePercentage Increase
United States and Canada$3,619,382 $3,048,902 $570,480 19 %
Europe, Middle East and Africa1,234,659 1,130,979 103,680 
Other International 621,805 554,081 67,724 12 
Total revenues$5,475,846 $4,733,962 $741,884 16 %

SegmentYear Ended December 31, 2022Year Ended December 31, 2021IncreasePercentage Increase
Research$4,604,791 $4,101,392 $503,399 12 %
Conferences389,273 214,449 174,824 82 
Consulting481,782 418,121 63,661 15 
Total revenues$5,475,846 $4,733,962 $741,884 16 %

Refer to the section of this MD&A below entitled “Segment Results” for a discussion of revenues and results by segment.

Cost of services and product development was $1.7 billion in 2022, an increase of $249.7 million compared to 2021, or 17% on a reported basis and 21% excluding the foreign currency impact. The increase in Cost of services and product development was primarily due to: (i) increased compensation costs as a result of higher headcount, (ii) increased conference related expenses, due to the return to in-person destination conferences and (iii) increased research program expenses. Cost of services and product development as a percent of revenues was 31% for both 2022 and 2021, respectively.

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Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expense was $2.5 billion in 2022, an increase of $325.3 million compared to 2021, or 15% on a reported basis and 19% excluding the foreign currency impact. The increase in SG&A during the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to the prior fiscal year, was primarily due to higher personnel costs in the current year, including higher salary expense due to increased headcount, as well as higher commission expense, following strong contract value growth in 2021, which is amortized as the related revenue is recognized. These increases were partially offset by a reduction in facilities expense, related to a reduction of our real estate footprint. We expect to continue to evaluate our real estate footprint globally. If we determine there is any additional excess property, there is no assurance that we will be able to sublease any such excess properties or that we will not incur costs in connection with such exit activities, which may be material. During 2022, we incurred charges associated with the impairment of right-of-use assets and other long-lived assets, related to certain office locations we no longer intend to use, of $54.0 million, compared to $49.5 million in 2021. The year ended December 31, 2021 also included expenses related to cancelled conferences.

The number of quota-bearing sales associates in Global Technology Sales increased by 18% to 3,630 and in Global Business Sales increased by 22% to 1,144, compared to December 31, 2021. On a combined basis, the total number of quota-bearing sales associates increased by 19% when compared to December 31, 2021. SG&A expense as a percent of revenues was 45% and 46% during 2022 and 2021, respectively.

Depreciation decreased by 9% during 2022 compared to 2021. The decrease for the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily due to a reduction in leasehold improvements depreciation as a result of the impairment losses recorded in the fourth quarter of 2021 and the year ended December 31, 2022.

Amortization of intangibles decreased by 10% during 2022 compared to 2021 due to certain intangible assets that became fully amortized in 2021.

Acquisition and integration charges increased by $3.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to the same period in 2021. The increase is primarily due to expenses related to the pending divestiture of our TalentNeuron business.

Operating income was $1.1 billion and $915.8 million during 2022 and 2021, respectively. The increase in operating income was due to increased revenue, partially offset by an increase in cost of services and product development and selling, general and administrative expenses.

Interest expense, net increased by $4.7 million during 2022 compared to 2021. The increase in interest expense, net was primarily due to an increase in debt as a result of the issuance of the 2029 Notes in June 2021 and higher interest rates on our term loan, partially offset by increased interest income, as well as lower interest expense due to the maturation of $700.0 million in fixed-for-floating interest rate swap contracts in March 2022.

Gain on event cancellation insurance claims of $152.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2021 reflected proceeds, net of expense recoveries, related to the 2020 conference cancellation insurance claims.

Other income, net for the years presented herein included the net impact of foreign currency gains and losses from our hedging activities, as well as sales of certain state tax credits and the recognition of other tax incentives. During 2022 and 2021, Other income, net included a $52.3 million and a $20.2 million gain on de-designated interest rate swaps, respectively.

Provision for income taxes was $219.4 million and $176.3 million during 2022 and 2021, respectively, with an effective income tax rate of 21.4% and 18.2% for 2022 and 2021, respectively. The 2021 effective tax rate includes a benefit of approximately $54.1 million from intercompany sales of certain intellectual property, while no such benefit occurred in 2022. This benefit represents the value of future tax deductions for amortization of the assets in the acquiring jurisdiction, net of any tax recognized in the selling jurisdiction. The Company’s intellectual property footprint continues to evolve and may result in tax rate volatility in the future. Note 12 — Income Taxes in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s income taxes.

Net income was $807.8 million and $793.6 million during 2022 and 2021, respectively. Additionally, our diluted net income per share increased by $0.75 in 2022 compared to 2021. These year-over-year changes reflect the increase in our 2022 operating income and higher Other income, net, partially offset by the gain on event cancellation insurance claims recognized in 2021 and increased income tax expense in 2022 compared to 2021.

SEGMENT RESULTS

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We evaluate reportable segment performance and allocate resources based on gross contribution margin. Gross contribution is defined as operating income or loss excluding certain Cost of services and product development expenses, SG&A expenses, Depreciation, Amortization of intangibles, and Acquisition and integration charges. Gross contribution margin is defined as gross contribution as a percent of revenues.

Reportable Segments

The sections below present the results of the Company’s three reportable business segments: Research, Conferences and Consulting.

Research
 The Year Ended December 31, 2022The Year Ended December 31, 2021Increase
(Decrease)
Percentage
Increase
(Decrease)
Financial Measurements:    
Revenues (1)$4,604,791 $4,101,392 $503,39912 %
Gross contribution (1)$3,414,574 $3,036,925 $377,64912 %
Gross contribution margin74 %74 %—  point— 
Business Measurements:    
Global Technology Sales (2):
Contract value (1), (3)$3,632,200 $3,300,600 $331,60010 %
Client retention 86 %86 %—  point— 
Wallet retention 105 %106 %(1) point— 
Global Business Sales (2):
Contract value (1), (3) $1,028,200 $864,600 $163,60019 %
Client retention 89 %87 % points— 
Wallet retention112 %115 %(3) points— 
(1)Dollars in thousands.
(2)Global Technology Sales includes sales to users and providers of technology. Global Business Sales includes sales to all other functional leaders.
(3)Contract values are on a foreign exchange neutral basis. Contract values as of December 31, 2021 have been calculated using the same foreign currency rates as 2022.

Research revenues increased by $503.4 million during 2022 compared to 2021, or 12% on a reported basis and 16% excluding the foreign currency impact. The gross contribution margin was 74% in both 2022 and 2021. The increase in revenues during 2022 was primarily due to strong Research contract value growth in 2021 and 2022.

Contract value increased to $4.7 billion at December 31, 2022, or 12% compared to December 31, 2021 on a foreign currency neutral basis. All industry sectors grew at double-digit rates, other than technology and media, which grew at high single digit rates. The fastest growth was in the transportation, retail and manufacturing sectors. Global Technology Sales (“GTS”) contract value increased by 10% at December 31, 2022 when compared to December 31, 2021. The increase in GTS contract value was primarily due to new business from new and existing clients. GTS contract value increased by double-digits for the majority of sectors. Global Business Sales (“GBS”) contract value increased by 19% year-over-year, also primarily driven by new business from new and existing clients. Nearly all of our GBS practices achieved double-digit growth rates, with the majority of enterprise size and sectors growing more than 15% year-over-year.

GTS client retention was 86% as of both December 31, 2022 and 2021, while wallet retention was 105% and 106%, as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. GBS client retention was 89% and 87% as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, while wallet retention was 112% and 115% as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

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Conferences
  The Year Ended December 31, 2022 The Year Ended December 31, 2021Increase
(Decrease)
Percentage
Increase
(Decrease)
Financial Measurements:   
Revenues (1)$389,273 $214,449 $174,82482 %
Gross contribution (1)$210,726 $133,748 $76,97858 %
Gross contribution margin54 %62 %(8) points— 
Business Measurements:    
Number of destination conferences (2)41392%
Number of destination conferences attendees (2) 60,10457,1452,959%
(1)Dollars in thousands.
(2)Includes both virtual and in-person conferences. Single day, local meetings are excluded.

Conferences revenues increased by $174.8 million during 2022 compared to 2021, or 82% on a reported basis and 90% excluding the foreign currency impact. We re-launched in-person destination conferences during the second quarter of 2022 and expect to hold in-person destination conferences in future periods as conditions permit. We held 25 in-person destination conferences and 16 virtual conferences during the year ended December 31, 2022. We held 39 virtual conferences during the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase in revenues for the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily due the return to in-person destination conferences. The segment gross contribution margin was 54% and 62% in 2022 and 2021, respectively. The lower gross contribution margin during 2022 was primarily due to the return to in-person destination conferences. We expect Conferences gross contribution margin to decrease from 2021 and 2022 levels as the mix of in-person destination conferences increases.

Consulting
 As Of And For The Year Ended December 31, 2022As Of And For The Year Ended December 31, 2021Increase
(Decrease)
Percentage
Increase
(Decrease)
Financial Measurements:    
Revenues (1)$481,782 $418,121 $63,66115 %
Gross contribution (1)$189,834 $158,843 $30,99120 %
Gross contribution margin39 %38 % point— 
Business Measurements:    
Backlog (1), (2)$139,700 $113,000 $26,70024 %
Average billable headcount8277497810 %
Consultant utilization70 %68 %points— 
(1)Dollars in thousands.
(2)Backlog is on a foreign currency neutral basis. Backlog as of December 31, 2021 has been calculated using the same foreign currency rates as 2022. We changed our method of calculating backlog beginning in 2022 to include multi-year contracts.

Consulting revenues increased 15% during 2022 compared to 2021 on a reported basis and 22% excluding the foreign currency impact. The increase in revenues on a reported basis was due to a 13% increase in labor-based consulting, and a 25% increase in contract optimization. Contract optimization revenue may vary significantly and, as such, 2022 revenues may not be indicative of future results. The segment gross contribution margin was 39% and 38% in 2022 and 2021, respectively. The increase in gross contribution margin during 2022 was primarily due to the increase in revenue.

Backlog increased by $26.7 million, or 24%, from December 31, 2021 to December 31, 2022. The change in our method of calculating backlog noted above contributed approximately 13 percentage points to the backlog growth rate.

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LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

We finance our operations through cash generated from our operating activities and borrowings. Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s outstanding debt obligations. At December 31, 2022, we had $698.0 million of cash and cash equivalents and approximately $1.0 billion of available borrowing capacity on the revolving credit facility under our 2020 Credit Agreement. We believe that the Company has adequate liquidity and access to capital markets to meet its currently anticipated needs for both the next twelve months and the foreseeable future.

We have historically generated significant cash flows from our operating activities. Our operating cash flow has been continuously maintained by the leverage characteristics of our subscription-based business model in our Research segment, which is our largest business segment and historically has constituted a significant portion of our total revenues. The majority of our Research customer contracts are paid in advance and, combined with a strong customer retention rate and high incremental margins, has resulted in continuously strong operating cash flow. Cash flow generation has also benefited from our ongoing efforts to improve the operating efficiencies of our businesses as well as a focus on the optimal management of our working capital as we increase sales.

Our cash and cash equivalents are held in numerous locations throughout the world with 30% held overseas at December 31, 2022. The Company intends to reinvest substantially all of its accumulated undistributed foreign earnings, except in instances where repatriation would result in minimal additional tax.

The table below summarizes the changes in the Company’s cash balances for the years indicated (in thousands).
 Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
 20222021
Cash provided by operating activities$1,101,422 $1,312,470 $(211,048)
Cash used in investing activities(117,558)(80,467)(37,091)
Cash used in financing activities(1,027,442)(1,157,609)130,167 
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash(43,578)74,394 (117,972)
Effects of exchange rates (18,425)(26,375)7,950 
Beginning cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash760,602 712,583 48,019 
Ending cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash$698,599 $760,602 $(62,003)

Operating

Cash provided by operating activities was $1.1 billion and $1.3 billion in 2022 and 2021, respectively. The year-over-year decrease was primarily due to $166.9 million of insurance proceeds received in the 2021 period related to 2020 event cancellation claims, as well as higher commission and interest payments in 2022, partially offset by reduced income tax payments.

Investing

Cash used in investing activities was $117.6 million and $80.5 million in 2022 and 2021, respectively. The increase from 2021 to 2022 was the result of increased capital expenditures primarily due to higher capitalized software and computer equipment additions, partially offset by lower spending on acquisitions.

Financing

Cash used in financing activities was $1.0 billion and $1.2 billion in 2022 and 2021, respectively. During the 2022 period, we used $1.0 billion of cash for share repurchases and paid a net $5.9 million in debt principal repayments. During the 2021 period, we issued $600.0 million of 3.625% Senior Notes due 2029, and repaid $100.0 million on our term loan facility under the 2020 Credit Agreement with a portion of the proceeds from the issuance of the 2029 Notes. During 2021, we used $1.7 billion for share repurchases. Additionally during 2021, we paid $7.3 million in deferred financing fees related to our financing activities. See Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s financing activities in 2021.

OBLIGATIONS AND COMMITMENTS
28



Debt

As of December 31, 2022, the Company had $2.5 billion of principal amount of debt outstanding. Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s outstanding debt obligations.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

Through December 31, 2022, the Company has not entered into any material off-balance sheet arrangements or transactions with unconsolidated entities or other persons.

Contractual Cash Commitments

The table below summarizes the Company’s future contractual cash commitments as of December 31, 2022 (in thousands).

Commitment DescriptionDue In Less Than
1 Year
Due In 2-3
Years
Due In 4-5
Years
Due In More Than
5 Years
Total
Debt – principal, interest, and commitment fees (1)$114,557 $482,490 $178,861 $2,361,026 $3,136,934 
Operating leases (2)148,675 247,687 218,485 299,612 914,459 
Deferred compensation arrangements (3)10,352 13,814 10,115 62,360 96,641 
Other (4)26,715 59,813 133,758 45,954 266,240 
Totals$300,299 $803,804 $541,219 $2,768,952 $4,414,274 

(1)Principal repayments of the Company’s debt obligations were classified in the above table based on the contractual repayment dates. Interest payments were based on the effective interest rates as of December 31, 2022. Commitment fees were based on unused balances and commitment rates as of December 31, 2022. Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides information regarding the Company’s debt obligations and interest rate swap contracts.
(2)The Company leases various facilities, automobiles, computer equipment and other assets under non-cancelable operating lease agreements expiring between 2023 and 2038. The total commitment excludes approximately $252.3 million of estimated future cash receipts from the Company’s subleasing arrangements. Note 1 — Business and Significant Accounting Policies and Note 7 — Leases in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provide additional information regarding the Company’s leases.
(3)The Company has supplemental deferred compensation arrangements with certain of its employees. Amounts payable with known payment dates have been classified in the above table based on those scheduled payment dates. Amounts payable whose payment dates are unknown have been included in the Due In More Than 5 Years category because the Company cannot determine when the amounts will be paid. Note 15 — Employee Benefits in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s supplemental deferred compensation arrangements.
(4)Other includes: (i) contractual commitments (a) for software, telecom and other services and (b) to secure sites for our Conferences business; and (ii) projected cash contributions to the Company’s defined benefit pension plans. Note 15 — Employee Benefits in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s defined benefit pension plans.

In addition to the contractual cash commitments included in the above table, the Company has other payables and liabilities that may be legally enforceable but are not considered contractual commitments. Information regarding the Company’s payables and liabilities is included in Note 5 — Accounts Payable and Accrued and Other Liabilities in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

The FASB has issued accounting standards that had not yet become effective as of December 31, 2022 and may impact the Company’s consolidated financial statements or its disclosures in future periods. Note 1 — Business and Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides information regarding those accounting standards.
29



ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.

INTEREST RATE RISK
 
As of December 31, 2022, the Company had $2.5 billion in total debt principal outstanding. Note 6 — Debt in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements provides additional information regarding the Company’s outstanding debt obligations.

Approximately $282.0 million of the Company’s total debt outstanding as of December 31, 2022 was based on a floating base rate of interest, which potentially exposes the Company to increases in interest rates. However, we reduce our overall exposure to interest rate increases through our interest rate swap contract, which effectively convert the floating base interest rates on all of our variable rate borrowings to fixed rates.

FOREIGN CURRENCY RISK
 
A significant portion of our revenues are typically derived from sales outside of the United States. Among the major foreign currencies in which we conduct business are the Euro, the British Pound, the Japanese Yen, the Australian dollar and the Canadian dollar. The reporting currency of our Consolidated Financial Statements is the U.S. dollar. As the values of the foreign currencies in which we operate fluctuate over time relative to the U.S. dollar, the Company is exposed to both foreign currency translation and transaction risk.

Translation risk arises as our foreign currency assets and liabilities are translated into U.S. dollars because the functional currencies of our foreign operations are generally denominated in the local currency. Adjustments resulting from the translation of these assets and liabilities are deferred and recorded as a component of stockholders’ equity. A measure of the potential impact of foreign currency translation can be determined through a sensitivity analysis of our cash and cash equivalents. At December 31, 2022, we had $698.0 million of cash and cash equivalents, with a substantial portion denominated in foreign currencies. If the exchange rates of the foreign currencies we hold all changed in comparison to the U.S. dollar by 10%, the amount of cash and cash equivalents we would have reported on December 31, 2022 could have increased or decreased by approximately $42.9 million. The translation of our foreign currency revenues and expenses historically has not had a material impact on our consolidated earnings because movements in and among the major currencies in which we operate tend to impact our revenues and expenses fairly equally. However, our earnings could be impacted during periods of significant exchange rate volatility, or when some or all of the major currencies in which we operate move in the same direction against the U.S. dollar.
 
Transaction risk arises when we enter into a transaction that is denominated in a currency that may differ from the local functional currency. As these transactions are translated into the local functional currency, a gain or loss may result, which is recorded in current period earnings. We typically enter into foreign currency forward exchange contracts to mitigate the effects of some of this foreign currency transaction risk. Our outstanding foreign currency forward exchange contracts as of December 31, 2022 had an immaterial net unrealized gain.

CREDIT RISK
 
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of short-term, highly liquid investments classified as cash equivalents, fees receivable, interest rate swap contracts and foreign currency forward exchange contracts. The majority of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents, interest rate swap contracts and foreign currency forward exchange contracts are with large investment grade commercial banks. Fees receivable balances deemed to be collectible from customers have limited concentration of credit risk due to our diverse customer base and geographic dispersion.

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.
 
Our financial statements for 2022, 2021 and 2020, together with the reports of KPMG LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm, are included herein in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE.

None.

ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES.

30


DISCLOSURE CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

Management conducted an evaluation, as of December 31, 2022, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)), under the supervision and with the participation of our chief executive officer and chief financial officer. Based upon that evaluation, our chief executive officer and chief financial officer have concluded that the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures are effective in alerting them in a timely manner to material Company information required to be disclosed by us in reports filed under the Exchange Act.

MANAGEMENT’S ANNUAL REPORT ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING

Gartner management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f). Gartner’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. In addition, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions and that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. Management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022. In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth in the Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Management’s assessment was reviewed with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.

Based on its assessment of internal control over financial reporting, management has concluded that, as of December 31, 2022, Gartner’s internal control over financial reporting was effective. The effectiveness of management’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022 has been audited by KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in Part IV, Item 15.

CHANGES IN INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING

There have been no changes in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended December 31, 2022 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION.

Not applicable.

ITEM 9C. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

None.
31


PART III

ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the captions “The Board of Directors,” “Proposal One: Election of Directors,” “Executive Officers,” “Corporate Governance,” “Delinquent Section 16(a) Reports” (if necessary) and “Proxy and Voting Information — Available Information” in the Company’s 2023 Proxy Statement. See also Item 1. Business — Available Information.

ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the captions “Compensation Discussion & Analysis,” “Compensation Tables and Narrative Disclosures,” “The Board of Directors - Compensation of Directors,” “The Board of Directors - Director Compensation Table,” “Corporate Governance - Risk Oversight - Risk Assessment of Compensation Policies and Practices,” and “Corporate Governance - Compensation Committee” in the Company’s 2023 Proxy Statement.

ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the captions “Compensation Tables and Narrative Disclosures — Equity Compensation Plan Information” and “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” in the Company’s 2023 Proxy Statement.

ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the captions “Transactions With Related Persons” and “Corporate Governance — Director Independence” in the Company’s 2023 Proxy Statement.

ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES.

The information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated by reference from the information set forth under the caption “Proposal Five: Ratification of Appointment of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm” in the Company’s 2023 Proxy Statement.

32


PART IV
 
ITEM 15. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES.
 
(a) 1. and 2. Financial Statements and Schedules
 
The reports of our independent registered public accounting firm and financial statements listed in the Index to Consolidated Financial Statements herein are filed as part of this report.
 
All financial statement schedules not listed in the Index have been omitted because the information required is not applicable or is shown in the consolidated financial statements or notes thereto.
 
3. Exhibits
EXHIBIT NUMBERDESCRIPTION OF DOCUMENT
Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company.
By-laws of Gartner, Inc. (as amended through April 29, 2021).
Indenture (including form of Notes), dated as of June 22, 2020, among Gartner, Inc., the guarantors named therein and U.S. Bank National Association, as a trustee, relating to the $800,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 4.500% Senior Notes due 2028.
Indenture (including form of Notes), dated as of September 28, 2020, among Gartner, Inc., the guarantors named therein and U.S. Bank National Association, as a trustee, relating to the $800,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 3.750% Senior Notes due 2030.
Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of September 28, 2020, among Gartner, Inc., the Lenders party thereto and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent.
Amended and Restated Guarantee and Collateral Agreement, dated as of September 28, 2020, among Gartner, Inc. each subsidiary guarantor party thereto and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.
Indenture (including form of Notes), dated as of June 18, 2021, among Gartner, Inc., the guarantors named therein and U.S. Bank National Association, as a trustee, relating to the $600,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 3.625% Senior Notes due 2029.
Description of Gartner, Inc.’s Common Stock.
2011 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as amended and restated, as of September 1, 2021.
Long-Term Incentive Plan, as amended and restated effective January 31, 2019.
Second Amended and Restated Employment Agreement between Eugene A. Hall and the Company dated as of February 14, 2019.
Amendment to Employment Agreement between Eugene A. Hall and the Company dated as of April 29, 2021.
Company Deferred Compensation Plan, effective January 1, 2009.
Form of 2020 Stock Appreciation Right Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2020 Performance Stock Unit Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2021 Stock Appreciation Right Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2021 Performance Stock Unit Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2022 Stock Appreciation Right Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2022 Performance Stock Unit Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2023 Stock Appreciation Right Agreement for executive officers.
Form of 2023 Performance Stock Unit Agreement for executive officers.
Form of Restricted Stock Unit Agreement for non-employee directors.
Enhanced Executive Rewards Policy.
33


Separation Agreement and Release of Claims, dated July 13, 2022, between the Company and Jules Kaufman
Subsidiaries of Registrant.
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.
Power of Attorney (see Signature Page).
Certification of chief executive officer under Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Certification of chief financial officer under Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Certification under Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
101.INS*XBRL Instance Document - the instance document does not appear in the Interactive Data File because its XBRL tags are embedded within the Inline XBRL document.
101.SCH*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document.
101.CAL*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document.
101.LAB*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document.
101.PRE*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document.
101.DEF*XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document.
104*Cover Page Interactive Data File, formatted in Inline XBRL (included as Exhibit 101).
 
*Filed with this document.
+Management compensation plan or arrangement.
(1)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 6, 2005.
(2)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on May 5, 2021.
(3)
Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 23, 2020.
(4)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on September 28, 2020.
(5)
Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 21, 2021.
(6)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 23, 2022.
(7)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Proxy Statement (Schedule 14A) filed on April 19, 2021.
(8)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 22, 2019.
(9)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 20, 2009.
(10)
Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 19, 2020.
(11)
Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 24, 2021.
(12)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed on August 1, 2018.
(13)Incorporated by reference from the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed on August 2, 2022.

34


INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (KPMG LLP, New York, NY, Auditor Firm ID: 185)
 
All financial statement schedules have been omitted because the information required is not applicable or is shown in the Consolidated Financial Statements or notes thereto.

35


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
Gartner, Inc.:

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Gartner, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2022, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2022, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, and our report dated February 16, 2023 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Unrecognized tax benefits

As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position when it believes such position is more likely than not of being sustained if challenged. As of December 31, 2022, the Company has recorded gross unrecognized tax benefits of $137.2 million. Recognized tax positions are measured at the largest amount of benefit with greater than a 50 percent likelihood of being realized. The Company uses estimates and assumptions in determining the amount of unrecognized tax benefits.

We identified the assessment of unrecognized tax benefits related to transfer pricing as a critical audit matter. Complex auditor judgment was required in evaluating the Company’s interpretation of tax law and its estimate of the ultimate resolution of its tax positions.

36


The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls over the Company’s unrecognized tax benefits process, including transfer pricing. We involved tax and transfer pricing professionals with specialized skills and knowledge, who assisted in assessing unrecognized tax benefits by:

evaluating the Company’s interpretation of tax laws and income tax consequences of intercompany transactions

assessing transfer pricing practices for compliance with relevant tax laws and regulations

analyzing the Company’s tax positions and determination of unrecognized tax benefits, including the associated effect in other jurisdictions

In addition, we evaluated the Company’s ability to estimate its unrecognized tax benefits by comparing historical unrecognized tax benefits to actual results upon conclusion of examinations by applicable taxing authorities.

/s/ KPMG LLP
 
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1996.

New York, New York
February 16, 2023

37


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
Gartner, Inc.:
Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

We have audited Gartner, Inc. and subsidiaries’ (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2022, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements), and our report dated February 16, 2023 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.

Basis for Opinion

The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ KPMG LLP
 
New York, New York
February 16, 2023
38


GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE DATA)
 
 December 31,
 20222021
ASSETS  
Current assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$697,999 $756,493 
Fees receivable, net of allowances of $9,000 and $6,500, respectively
1,556,786 1,365,180 
Deferred commissions363,079 380,569 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets119,207 117,838 
Assets held-for-sale49,036  
Total current assets2,786,107 2,620,080 
Property, equipment and leasehold improvements, net264,581 273,562 
Operating lease right-of-use assets436,592 548,258 
Goodwill2,930,211 2,951,317 
Intangible assets, net584,714 714,418 
Other assets297,531 308,689 
Total Assets$7,299,736 $7,416,324 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY  
Current liabilities:  
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities$1,115,198 $1,134,814 
Deferred revenues2,443,762 2,238,035 
Current portion of long-term debt7,800 5,931 
Liabilities held-for-sale30,840  
Total current liabilities3,597,600 3,378,780 
Long-term debt, net of deferred financing fees2,453,607 2,456,833 
Operating lease liabilities597,267 697,766 
Other liabilities423,464 511,887 
Total Liabilities7,071,938 7,045,266 
Stockholders’ Equity:  
Preferred stock:  
$0.01 par value, authorized 5,000,000 shares; none issued or outstanding
  
Common stock:  
$0.0005 par value, 250,000,000 shares authorized; 163,602,067 shares issued for both periods
82 82 
Additional paid-in capital2,179,604 2,074,896 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net(101,610)(81,431)
Accumulated earnings3,856,826 3,049,027 
Treasury stock, at cost, 84,428,513 and 81,205,504 common shares, respectively
(5,707,104)(4,671,516)
Total Stockholders’ Equity 227,798 371,058 
Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity $7,299,736 $7,416,324 
 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

39


GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE DATA)
 Year Ended December 31,
 202220212020
Revenues:   
Research$4,604,791 $4,101,392 $3,602,892 
Conferences389,273 214,449 120,140 
Consulting481,782 418,121 376,371 
Total revenues5,475,846 4,733,962 4,099,403 
Costs and expenses:   
Cost of services and product development1,693,771 1,444,093 1,345,024 
Selling, general and administrative2,480,944 2,155,658 2,038,963 
Depreciation93,410 102,802 93,925 
Amortization of intangibles98,536 109,603 125,059 
Acquisition and integration charges9,079 6,055 6,282 
Total costs and expenses4,375,740 3,818,211 3,609,253 
Operating income1,100,106 915,751 490,150 
Interest income4,880 1,893 2,087 
Interest expense(126,203)(118,513)(115,636)
Gain on event cancellation insurance claims  152,310  
Loss on extinguishment of debt  (44,814)
Other income (expense), net48,412 18,429 (5,654)
Income before income taxes1,027,195 969,870 326,133 
Provision for income taxes219,396 176,310 59,388 
Net income$807,799 $793,560 $266,745 
Net income per share:   
Basic$10.08 $9.33 $2.99 
Diluted$9.96 $9.21 $2.96 
Weighted average shares outstanding:   
Basic80,178 85,026 89,315 
Diluted81,067 86,177 90,017 
 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

40


GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(IN THOUSANDS)
 Year Ended December 31,
 202220212020
Net income$807,799 $793,560 $266,745 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:   
Foreign currency translation adjustments(39,679)(6,621)10,375 
Interest rate swaps - net change in deferred gain or loss17,075 21,781 (30,940)
Pension plans - net change in deferred actuarial gain or loss2,425 2,637 (725)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax(20,179)17,797 (21,290)
Comprehensive income$787,620 $811,357 $245,455 
 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

41


GARTNER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(IN THOUSANDS)
 
 Common
Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss, Net
Accumulated
Earnings
Treasury
Stock
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
Balance at December 31, 2019$82 $1,899,273 $(77,938)$1,988,722 $(2,871,546)$938,593 
Net income— — — 266,745 — 266,745 
Other comprehensive loss— — (